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book of Hebrews: better f...
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  New(er) Online Peshitta Translation
Posted by: Luc Lefebvre - 05-06-2019, 07:10 PM - Forum: General - Replies (5)

Hey everyone,

Who here knows who translated the Eastern peshitta on this website,


It looks like a very thorough project, but there's no information on who actually did it, their theological background, etc. I saw it linked to Christian Nash's Facebook, and I also did see a COE page link to back to it, which is good, but I'd still like to know more info! 

If there's another thread about it that I missed on here, please direct me as well, as I was not able to find anything.

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  Complete Peshitta Translation in E Book!
Posted by: gbausc - 04-12-2019, 06:27 PM - Forum: General - No Replies

This is the whole Bible translated from Jesus’ and 1st century Israel’s native Aramaic in a downloadable E Book for Kindle, Nook, I Book and other digital book readers for just $12.99. There are no notes in this edition. The translator is convinced that the 1st century Peshitta New Testament is the original God written scripture, and the 1st century Old Testament Peshitta is the best representation and unedited version of the original Old Testament, unlike the doctrinally edited Massoretic Hebrew Bible commonly translated into English and other languages over the past 1000 years. Codex Ambrosianus, the world’s oldest complete Semitic Bible manuscript (6th century AD), is the basis for the Old Testament translation.


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  Dave Bauscher's New Aramaic NT web site
Posted by: gbausc - 04-03-2019, 09:02 PM - Forum: General - Replies (1)

Have a gander at my new web site my son Luke and daughter Julia helped me publish. Some of the purchase links are not working yet. If you want to make a purchase, go to the bottom of the home page and click on the link that says:
CLICK HERE ....spotlight/gbauscher.


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  The Peshitta Holy Bible Translated in 6x9 hardcover
Posted by: gbausc - 03-28-2019, 09:05 PM - Forum: General - No Replies

I just released my translation of the Peshitta Bible- Old and New Testaments in 6x9 hardcover. Have a look.


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  _The Peshitta Holy Bible_ translated by David Bauscher
Posted by: DavidFord - 03-16-2019, 03:11 PM - Forum: Aramaic Primacy Forum - Replies (5)

David, thanks very much for publishing this.  I was wondering, could you please translate the rest of the Peshitta Tanakh, and publish that?

_The Peshitta Holy Bible_, translated by David Bauscher
....the 39 Old Testament books and the 27 New Testament books....

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  Church of the East Study Bible
Posted by: Luc Lefebvre - 02-23-2019, 10:07 PM - Forum: General - No Replies

Hey everyone,

A few years ago there was vague discussion and mention of a Church of the East committee translation and Study Bible of the Peshitta comparable to the Orthodox Study Bible that was in the works. Is this still a project that is happening?

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  Matthew 18: 3 - "Turn" or "Change"?
Posted by: Charles Wilson - 02-20-2019, 07:12 PM - Forum: Mistranslations - Replies (6)

Matthew 18: 3 (RSV):

[3] and said, "Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

Younan Translation:

<and said> - <truly> - < i say> - <to you> - <that unless> - <you change> - <and become> - <like> - <children> - [<not> - <you will enter>] - <into the kingdom> - <of heaven>.

Hello everyone --

I keep coming back to this verse and it appears to straddle the 2 languages involved.  There are versions that have "...turn as a child..." and Paul Younan has "...change as a child...".  I certainly understand the  Intentionality here.  However, what does the Language of the verse tell us?  Does the Peshitta and the Greek both have the 2 meanings for "turn/change" here?

Thank you and more later, if needed,


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  book of Hebrews: better from Greek, or Aramaic?
Posted by: DavidFord - 02-16-2019, 11:11 PM - Forum: Aramaic Primacy Forum - Replies (68)

Which Hebrews renditions below do you like better?

Heb 1:4-5 (KJV)
4 *Being made so much better than the angels,*
as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.
5 For unto which of the angels *said he at any time,*
Thou art my Son,
this day have I begotten thee?
And again,
I will be to him a Father,
and he shall be to me a Son?
Heb 1:4 (APNT)
4 And *this [one] is greater than the angels* in every way,
even as the name that he inherited is greater than theirs.
5 For to which of the angels *did God ever say:*
and again,

Heb 2:6 (KJV)
But *one in a certain place testified,* saying,
What is man, that thou art mindful of him?
or the son of man that thou visitest him?
Heb 2:6  (Aramaic Peshitta NT)
https://aramaicdb.lightofword.org/index....nce-search But *as the scripture witnesses* and says:

Heb 4:4 (KJV) For he spake in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise,
And God did rest the seventh day from all his works.
Heb 4:4 (APNT) As he said about the Sabbath:

Heb 5:7 (KJV) Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared;
Heb 5:7 (APNT) Also, while he was clothed with flesh, he offered petition and intercession with strong crying and with tears to him who was able to make him alive from death and he was heard.

Heb 6:1 (KJV) Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God,
Heb 6:1 (APNT) Because of this, we should leave the starting point of the word of Christ and we should come to maturity.  Or will you again lay another foundation for repentance from dead works and for the faith that is in God

Heb 7:3 (KJV) Without father, without mother, without descent,
having neither beginning of days, nor end of life;
but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually.
Heb 7:3 (APNT) whose father and mother are not written in the genealogies,
nor the beginning of his days, nor the completion of his life.
But in the likeness of the Son of God, his priesthood remains forever.

Hebrews 7:19-21 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
19 (for the law perfected nothing), but a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God.

Heb 7:21 (KJV)  (For those priests were made without an oath;
but this with an oath by him that said unto him,
The Lord [Greek:  kurios] sware and will not repent,
Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec: )
Heb 7:21 (APNT) For they became priests without oaths,
but this [one] with oaths, as he said to him by way of David:

Heb 8:5-6 (KJV)
5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as *Moses was admonished of God* when he was about to make the tabernacle:  for,

See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.
6 But *now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry,* by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.

Heb 8:5-6 (APNT) those who minister for a type and for shadows of those [things] that are in heaven, *as was said to Moses* while he was making the tabernacle:
6 And now, *Jesus Christ has received a ministry* that is more excellent than that, as also that covenant in which he was made the mediator is more excellent. So [it is] with the promises that are more excellent than what was given.

Heb 11:1 (KJV) Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.
Heb 11:1 (APNT) Now faith is the persuasion concerning those [things] that are in hope, as if they had in fact happened, and the evidence of those [things] that are not seen.

*transliterations + translations:  Hebrews 7:1-2*

The bottom line is that in the original Aramaic for Hebrews 7:1-2, "Mlki-Zdq" got expounded as the partially-similar "Mlka d'Kanutha," while in contrast,
the Greek version has the transliteration "Melchisedek," which it translates as the very-dissimilar "basileus dikaiosyne."
Also, in the original Aramaic, "Mlk Shlim" was expounded as the largely similar "Mlka d'Shlma," while in contrast,
the Greek version has the part-translation, part-transliteration "basileus Salem," which it fully-translates as "basileus eirene."

We start with some Aramaic vocabulary.  
Mlki-Zdq -- King-Righteous, i.e. "Righteous King," or:  "King (of) Righteousness"  [could it be 'my righteous king'?]
(Incidentally, "zadiqa" means "righteous/ just, a righteous/ just man," and "Zaduqia" are Sadducees.)
Mlk-Shlim -- king (of) peace
d'mlka -- of the kings
Mlka-d'Kanutha -- king of righteousness
Mlk-Shlim -- king (of) peace
Mlka-d'Shlma -- king of peace

Hebrews 7:1-2 (based on Etheridge + Khabouris, from dukhrana.com)
1.  For this Mlki-Zdq is Mlk-Shlim, the priest of Allaha the Most High.  
And he met Abraham when he returned from the slaughter d'mlka [of the kings], and blessed him.
2.  And to him Abraham separated the tenth from everything that he had with him.
Now his name, being expounded, (is) the Mlka-d'Kanutha;
and again, Mlk-Shlim, which is, Mlka-d'Shlma.

Note how in the original Aramaic, there's 6 instances of "mlk"/king, and 3 instances of words having the letters "shlm"/ peace, as the author of Hebrews expresses things slightly differently (in different Aramaic dialects?).

We now take a look at the Greek transliterations and translations of the passage.

Hebrews 7:1-2 (hybrid of DLNT + MOUNCE; the bracketed "his name" is the DLNT's)
For this Melchisedek [Melchizedek], basileus-Salem [king _of_ Salem], priest _of_ the Most-High God, remains _a_ priest perpetually--  
the _one_ having met Abraham returning from the defeat _of_ the basileus [kings] and having eulogeo [blessed] him;
_to_ whom also Abraham divided dekatos [_a_ tenth] from everything;
_who is_ first ([his name] hermeneuo [being translated]), basileus-dikaiosyne [king _of_ righteousness];
and then also basileus-Salem [king _of_ Salem], which is basileus-eirene [king _of_ peace];

transliterations of the Greek transliterations:
Melchisedek:  1 instance
Salem:  2 instances

transliterations of the Greek translations:
basileus (5 instances; translates the Aramaic mlk/ 'king')
dikaiosyne (translates the Aramaic d'kanutha/ 'of righteousness')
eirene (1 instance; translates the Aramaic shlma/ 'peace')

Heb 8 (KJV)
4 For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law:
5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.
6 But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.
7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.
8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord [Greek:  kurios], when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah:
9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord [Greek:  kurios].
10 For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord [Greek:  kurios];
I will put my laws into their mind,
and write them in their hearts:
and I will be to them a God,
and they shall be to me a people:
11 And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord [Greek:  kurios]:  
for all shall know me,
from the least to the greatest.
12 For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness,
and their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.
13 In that he saith, A new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.

Heb 8 (Aramaic Bible in Plain English), https://biblehub.com/aramaic-plain-engli...rews/8.htm
4 And if he were on Earth, he would not be a Priest, because there have been Priests who have been offering gifts according to what is in The Law,
5 Those who serve the form and the shadow of these things that are in Heaven, as it was said to Moses when he made The Tabernacle, "See and do everything by the image that appeared to you on the mountain."
6 Now Yeshua The Messiah has received the Ministry which is better than that, as The Covenant of which he is made The Mediator is better, and it is given with better promises than that.
7 For if the first one had been without fault, then there would have been no place for this second one.
8 For he found fault with them, and he said, "Behold, the days are coming, says THE LORD JEHOVAH [Aramaic: MrYa, i.e. Master YHWH], and I will perfect a New Covenant for the family of the house of Israel and for the family of the house of Judah."
9 "Not like that Covenant that I gave to their fathers in the day when I took their hands and brought them from the land of Egypt, because they did not continue in my Covenant; I also rejected them, says THE LORD JEHOVAH."[Aramaic: MrYa, i.e. Master YHWH]
10 "But this is The Covenant that I shall give to the family of the house of Israel:  
After those days, says THE LORD JEHOVAH [Aramaic: MrYa, i.e. Master YHWH],
I shall put my law in their minds
and upon their hearts I shall write it,
and I shall be to them a God,
and they shall be to me a people."
11 "And a man will not teach a citizen of his city, neither his brother, and say,
'Know THE LORD JEHOVAH',[Aramaic: MrYa, i.e. Master YHWH]
because they shall all know me,
from their little ones and unto their Elders."
12 "And I shall purge them of their evils,
and I shall not remember their sins again."
13 In that he said, "New", he has made the first old, and that which is outdated and old is near destruction.

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  Janus parallelism in the OT
Posted by: DavidFord - 02-14-2019, 12:24 AM - Forum: Aramaic Primacy Forum - Replies (1)

“The corresponding Aramaic form for the Word God is ʼĔlāhā ܐܠܗܐ in Biblical Aramaic and ʼAlâhâ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply 'God'. It would be more accurate to use the form as used in Biblical Aramaic, which would be the form used by Jesus in His day, instead of the Assyrian form.”
Was the dialect used “The Passion of the Christ” of Mel Gibson “the form used by Jesus in His day”?

“when translating into English, it should be translated, ‘God’. To used the word ‘Allah' in the English translation is not justifiable, particularly when referring to the Biblical Aramaic. The Peshitta in English does not use the word ‘Allah’, it uses ‘God’. Other English translations of the Aramaic NT also use ‘God’.”
Do you think it’s inadvisable for a translation to have transliterations-- i.e. untranslated words whose sounds are roughly approximated with the new language’s alphabet characters?  Re:  “other English translations of the Aramaic NT also use ‘God,’” does that include the translation done by Etheridge?
Etheridge, http://dukhrana.com
Matthew 1:23 - Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth the son, and they shall call his name Amanuel; which is interpreted, With us (is) our Aloha.

“I do believe Jesus and many of his disciples normally spoke Aramaic and would therefore require a translation process to write it into the Greek language, so there certainly would be traces of Aramaic origins in the Greek text”
What are 3 of those “traces of Aramaic origins in the Greek text”?

“Janus parallelism in Greek manuscripts - relevancy ??    Some believe there are Janus parallelisms in Job and that is not in Greek.”

Poetic features such as rhyming and Janus parallelism are far more likely to be lost during a translation from an original language, compared with being added during a translation into another language.  Job is loaded with Janus parallisms.  Are you aware of any such instances in the Greek translation of Job?

_Janus Parallelism in the Book of Job_
This book, a revised version of the author's doctoral dissertation, provides a history of research on the device and details and examines nearly fifty hitherto unrecognized Janus Parallels in the Hebrew Bible (with a specific focus on the book of Job).  Consideration is given to the literary purpose of the device and its social significance. In addition, the monograph examines a number of Janus Parallels in extra-biblical texts of the ancient Near East (including Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian, Arabic, and Medieval Hebrew).

Other possible cases of Janus parallelism, sometimes tentative, include:
Genesis 6:3 (“going astray”/“in that, inasmuch as”),
Genesis 15:1 (“shield”/“giver, donor”),
Genesis 49:6 (“enter”/“desire” and “be united”/“rejoice”), and
Genesis 49:26 (“parents”/“mountains”)
Exodus 33:13 (“way”/“power”)
Ruth 1:21 (“to answer”/“to afflict”)
Psalm 22:17 (“encircles”/“dismembers”),
Psalm 30:13 (one word can mean “be silent”/“mourn”/“perish,” with connections before and after its occurrence),
Psalm 55:3 (“I groan”/“I am in a panic”), and
Psalm 75:2 (“your name”/“your heavens”)
Jeremiah 25:10 (“tillage” or “tilled land”/“lamp” — but Noegel disputes this, arguing that the meaning of “land” is unsupported)
Habakkuk 3:4 (“rays”/“horns”) and 3:15 (“foaming”/“clay” [for a bowl])
Amos 1:13 (“not let him return”/“blow, fan” [a fire], a wordplay also in Amos 1:6, 9, 11, 2:1, 4, 6)
Nahom 1:8 (“its place”/“the rebels”)  ….
For example, in Isaiah 14:11–13, Noegel finds a Janus parallelism wherein one word can mean both Bright One (Lucifer) and Boastful One.  As Bright One, it is parallel with the “stars of Elohim” in verse 13, while “Boastful One” is parallel with “your pride” in the previous verse.32

In Job 1:20, Job performs four actions: 1) he rends his garment; 2) he shears his head; 3) he falls to the ground; and 4) he prostrates himself.  The third of these can be read either (with the first two) as an act of mourning or (with the last) as an act of worship.

Job 1:20
Amos 1:3, 6, 9, 11, 13
Amos 2:1, 4, 6
Ezekial 20:37

“All you've really given me is conjecture. That's great that you feel that certain words work better assuming an Aramaic base, but that proves nothing except personal preference. Even if I were to grant that portions of the Synoptics assume an Aramaic base (Jesus undoubtedly spoke Aramaic),”
And his disciples e.g. John and Peter, plus Paul.

“that hardly proves that the entire New Testament was composed in Aramaic. That supposition is nigh on ludicrous. You've provided a handful of examples from the Gospels and Revelation.”
And Acts.

“As it stands, these are only possible cases that certain words in the Gospels might work better assuming an Aramaic base, but that is still only conjectural. I read the Peshitta years ago and am well acquainted with it. The Oxford version of the Bible includes many of the variations you listed.”
Do those variations include:  a Joseph being Mary’s father in the Mt 1 geneology?  Jesus having a chest and not breasts in Rev 1?

“I don't think you've made a case for the New Testament being composed in Aramaic as a whole. There's a mountain of evidence that is against your supposition. One is that the oldest manuscripts of the New Testament are all in Greek (not a one in Aramaic - that's a fact).  We're not talking about Medieval versions here, we're talking about actual manuscripts dated to within a few centuries of the disciples.”
How old are those mss.?  (older than A.D. 175?)
How old are the oldest mss. among the mss. of Mt Mk Lk and Jn?

“Plus, there's tons of evidence supporting the opposite of what you're saying, i.e. that versions like the Peshitta are dependent on the Septuagint for the Old Testament. This is obvious when one compares the Peshitta to the Septuagint and the Masoretic text (I've done this personally). Often, the Peshitta agrees with the Septuagint against the Hebrew Masoretic text. The Peshitta being the sole Semitic witness of very specific readings only found in the Septuagint. Paul quotes from the Septuagint pretty much exclusively, almost word for word. Never does he quote from a known Semitic version we now possess.”
I’ve not yet studied the subject of quotations in the Septuagint vs. Peshitta OT vs. Peshitta NT vs. Dead Sea Scrolls vs. Masoretic vs. Byzantine Greek vs. Alexandrian Greek, but it sounds fascinating.  In your comparing, did you include looking at the Peshitta OT?  What are 2 instances where the Byzantine Greek Paul clearly quotes the Septuagint, and _not_ the Peshitta OT?  What are 2 instances where the Peshitta has “the sole Semitic witness of very specific readings only found in the Septuagint”?

What are the differences between the Peshitta and the Septuagint?
Going back to the OT: The Dead Sea Scrolls show that there were manuscripts in the 1st-century that supported the LXX readings, and other manuscripts that they call Proto-Masoretic, reading more like the Masoretic text of 1000AD.
In most cases, The Dead Sea Scrolls, Aramaic Peshitta, and the LXX agree, but there are many text segments that support Masoretic text, so it’s not a clear picture.
Then there are the scholars that say the Byzantine Greek manuscripts have such close agreement to the Aramaic Peshitta, that they wonder if the Peshitta was one of their base texts, while the Alexandrian Greek family seems to have it’s own historical path, separate from the Peshitta, from the Greeks in Alexandria.  ….
Some scholars point out that the OT quotes in the Greek-based NT seem to line up with the Greek LXX, so the Apostles must have spoke and written in Greek, but the Aramaic scholars counter by showing how the OT quotes in the Peshitta line up with the Peshitta Tanakh, so they must have spoken and written in Aramaic.
There does seem to be more evidence supporting them speaking in Aramaic, and Josephus states that learning Greek was greatly discouraged, so it’s likely the NT was originally Aramaic.

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  The Peshitta Holy Bible Translated
Posted by: gbausc - 02-09-2019, 08:59 PM - Forum: General - No Replies


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