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New "Trilinear Targums" Section
Shlama Akhay,

I've uploaded new PDF files of the OT Targums, including the original Hebrew text, the official Aramaic Targum and English translation. I've nicknamed the section "Trilinear Targums" (is "trilinear" a word? <!-- s:dontgetit: --><img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/dontgetit.gif" alt=":dontgetit:" title="Dont Get It" /><!-- s:dontgetit: -->)


Thank you!!!

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This is a blessing to have.

Some notes I wanted to make about this particular version.

1. The English translation appears to follow the Masoretic instead of the Aramaic

2. There is a frequent (as far as I can see so far) use of "Elohim" instead of "Alaha" in the Aramaic. And instead of the familiar from of "Yod Yod" for "God" or "MarYah" (as in Onkelos), there is the use of "Yod Waw Yod".

Do you know what the English translation is? What English version? (New American Standard Bible ?)

And what do you mean by "official Aramaic Targum". Curios.

Thanks again for making these available.


Zechariyah seems to have a problem in the download. I get the following error when trying to open it:

The filename "Zachariah.pdf" indicates that this file is of type "PDF document". The contents of the file indicate that the file is of type "HTML document". If you open this file, the file might present a security risk to your system. Do not open the file unless you created the file yourself, or received the file from a trusted source. To open the file, rename the file to the correct extension for "HTML document", then open the file normally. Alternatively, use the Open With menu to choose a specific application for the file.
Baruch HaShem! This will be an awesome resource to have. Thank you so much, Mr. Younan.
Just one question, though. I'm a little inept at navigating here, can you show me where it is on the website? Thanks.

Shlama Dawid,

Paul has it under the menu "Trilinear Targums" on the left of the site when you go to <!-- m --><a class="postlink" href=""></a><!-- m --> You might have to refresh your browser if you don't see it.
Sorry, link to Zechariah fixed....try reloading.
Akhi Dawid, you should see it now - let me know if it's still not there.....
Paul Younan Wrote:Akhi Dawid, you should see it now - let me know if it's still not there.....
Paul and Yaaqub, I figured it out, thanks to Yaaqub's link. It's weird, if I'm at the address "" then it doesn't appear. However, at the address "" it appears. I don't get it, but it works, and that's the important part.
Thanks to both of you. This will be wonderful.
Which Targum is this? I'm assuming it's Jonathan?

Shlama Akhi,

Thank you. Got Zechariyah and it works fine.
Paul Younan Wrote:Which Targum is this? I'm assuming it's Jonathan?


It does appear in some instances to be quite similar to Targum Yonatan, but differs in some spellings with the London Polygot. For instance, in Judges 5:9 it uses an "alef" at the end of the first word "amra" whereas as Targum Yonatan in the London Polyglot uses a "taw" at the end of the word.

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Yup, it's Targum Yonathan, not sure which manuscript though - might have spelling variations. The English is from the NAS.
January 12, 2008

Are the Aramaic Targums different from the Peshitta Tanackh?

ograabe Wrote:Are the Aramaic Targums different from the Peshitta Tanackh?

Yes, quite different. The Peshitta OT was a full-blown translation. The Aramaic Targums (Onkelos, Jonathan, etc.) are more like the written versions of the oral readings the Aramaic translator (the "Meturgeman") would recite in the synagogue after the readings in Hebrew.

Therefore the Targums have a lot more Hebraicisms than the Peshitta does, which flows more naturally in Aramaic. The creators of the Targums weren't so concerned with perfect Aramaic as they were with staying very close to the Hebrew, and containing just enough Aramaic to allow the people to understand.

The general term "Targum" simply means "translation", so even the Peshitta (and, the LXX and King James versions for that matter) are "targums" in a broad sense.
In addition to what Akhi Paul said, the Targums are essentially an interpretive translation. They aren't strict translations, they often elaborate on and explain what the word is saying. It's very interesting, because the Targums often interpret passages as Messianic that modern antimissionaries say are not Messianic.

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