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book of Hebrews: better from Greek, or Aramaic?
Do you think Psalm 151A and 151B belong in the Bible? Versions of them are in both the LXX and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Psalm 150-152 (Brenton Septuagint)
https://biblehub.com/sep/psalms/150.htm
1 Alleluia. Praise God in his holy places: praise him in the firmament of his power.
2 Praise him on account of his mighty acts: praise him according to his abundant greatness.
3 Praise him with the sound of a trumpet: praise him with psaltery and harp.
4 Praise him with timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and the organ.
5 Praise him with melodious cymbals: praise him with loud cymbals.
6 Let every thing that has breath praise the Lord.

[151:1] I was small among my brethren, and youngest in my father's house: I tended my father's sheep. [2] My hands formed a musical instrument, and my fingers tuned a psaltery. [3] And who shall tell my Lord? the Lord himself, he himself hears. [4] He sent forth his angel, and took me from my father's sheep, and he anointed me with the oil of his anointing. [5] My brothers were handsome and tall; but the Lord did not take pleasure in them. [6] I went forth to meet the Philistine; and he cursed me by his idols. [7] But I drew his own sword, and beheaded him, and removed reproach from the children of Israel.

[152:1] O Lord, Almighty God of our fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of their righteous seed; [2] who hast made heaven and earth, with all the ornament thereof; [3] who hast bound the sea by the word of thy commandment; who hast shut up the deep, and sealed it by thy terrible and glorious name; [4] whom all men fear, and tremble before thy power; [5] for the majesty of thy glory cannot be borne, and thine angry threatening toward sinners is importable: [6] but thy merciful promise is unmeasurable and unsearchable; [7] for thou art the most high Lord, of great compassion, longsuffering, very merciful, and repentest of the evils of men. Thou, O Lord, according to thy great goodness hast promised repentance and forgiveness to them that have sinned against thee: and of thine infinite mercies hast appointed repentance unto sinners, that they may be saved. [8] Thou therefore, O Lord, that art the God of the just, hast not appointed repentance to the just, as to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, which have not sinned against thee; but thou hast appointed repentance unto me that am a sinner:

[9] for I have sinned above the number of the sands of the sea. My transgressions, O Lord, are multiplied: my transgressions are multiplied, and I am not worthy to behold and see the height of heaven for the multitude of mine iniquities. [10] I am bowed down with many iron bands, that I cannot lift up mine head, neither have any release: for I have provoked thy wrath, and done evil before thee: I did not thy will, neither kept I thy commandments: I have set up abominations, and have multiplied offences. [11] Now therefore I bow the knee of mine heart, beseeching thee of grace. [12] I have sinned, O Lord, I have sinned, and I acknowledge mine iniquities: [13] wherefore, I humbly beseech thee, forgive me, O Lord, forgive me, and destroy me not with mine iniquities. Be not angry with me for ever, by reserving evil for me; neither condemn me to the lower parts of the earth. For thou art the God, even the God of them that repent; [14] and in me thou wilt shew all thy goodness: for thou wilt save me, that am unworthy, according to thy great mercy. [15] Therefore I will praise thee for ever all the days of my life: for all the powers of the heavens do praise thee, and thine is the glory for ever and ever. Amen.

_The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English_, translated and with commentary by Martin Abegg Jr., Peter Flint & Eugene Ulrich (1999), 649pp., 586
In 11QPs^a the column containing Psalms 151A and 151B is followed by a blank column. The black leather clearly shows that the collection found in 11QPs^a actually ended with Psalm 151B, a version of which also ends the book of Psalms in the Septuagint.

Anything beyond Psalm 150:6 seems to not be in the Peshitta Tanakh Psalms.
http://cal.huc.edu/showtargum.php?bookna...tta=ON&Sam=
Reply
How should Mt 18:14 be rendered?

v. 2.5, Mt "18:14 Even so it is not the will of your Father who is in heaven
that one of these little ones should perish."

Joachim Jeremias, _New Testament Theology: The Proclamation of Jesus_ (1971), 330pp., 181
https://www.amazon.com/New-Testament-The...334016266/
On the translation of Matt. 18.14 (οὕτως οὐκ ἔστιν θέλημα ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ πατρός μου ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μικρῶν τούτων): in a Semitic-type way of speaking, the negative is introduced into the first half of the sentence, whereas in fact it belongs to the second half. τούτων is a superfluous demonstrative (Semitism). Thus: 'It pleases God if even one of the least of all escapes destruction'. The content agrees with Luke 15.7a.

Matthew 18:14
https://biblehub.com/matthew/18-14.htm
(Berean Literal) Thus it is not _the_ will of your Father
who _is_ in _the_ heavens that one of these little ones should perish.
(YLT) so it is not will in presence of your Father who is in the heavens,
that one of these little ones may perish.

Matthew 18:14 (DLNT)
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?se...rsion=DLNT
So it is not _the_ will in-the-sight-of [a] your Father in _the_ heavens
that one _of_ these little _ones_ should be-lost.
a: Or, in the presence of. ....

Matthew 18:14 (interlinear)
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/matthew/18-14.htm
Thus not it is [the] will of the Patros/Πατρὸς/Father of you who [is] in [the] heavens
that should perish one of the little ones toutōn/τούτων/of-these

Matthew 18:14
http://dukhrana.com/peshitta/analyze_ver...ize=125%25
(Etheridge) So it is not good [Ad lit., "The will."] before your Father who is in heaven,
that one of these little ones should perish.
(Murdock) Just so, it is not the pleasure of your Father who is in heaven,
that one of these little ones should perish.
(Lamsa) Even so, your Father in heaven
does not want one of these little ones to be lost.
(KJV) Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven,
that one of these little ones should perish.

Luke 15:7 (YLT)
https://biblehub.com/luke/15-7.htm
'I say to you, that
so joy shall be in the heaven over one sinner reforming,
rather than over ninety-nine righteous men,
who have no need of reformation.

======================================.
work up:
4314. pros
https://biblehub.com/greek/4314.htm
.... 1. of the goal or limit toward which a movement is directed: πρός τινα or τί, a. properly, after verbs of going, departing, running, coming, etc.: ἄγω, John 11:15; ἀναβαίνω, Mark 6:51; John 20:17; Acts 15:2; ἀνακάμπτω, Matthew 2:12; Acts 18:21; ἀνέρχομαι, Galatians 1:17 (L Tr marginal reading ἀπῆλθον); ἀπέρχομαι, Matthew 14:25 (Rec.); Mark 3:13, etc.; πρός ἑαυτόν, to his house, Luke 24:12 (T omits; L Tr brackets; WH reject the verse; Tr reads πρός αὐτοῦ; some connect the phrase with θαυμάζων (see 2 b. below)); John 20:10 (T Tr αὐτούς, WH αὑτούς (cf. under the word αὑτοῦ, at the end)); γίνεσθαι πρός τινα, to come to one, 1 Corinthians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 16:10; διαπεράω, Luke 16:26; ἐγγίζω, Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29; εἰσέρχομαι, Mark 6:25; Luke 1:28; Acts 10:3; (πρός τήν Λυδίαν, into the house of Lydia, Acts 16:40 (Rec. εἰς)); etc.; Revelation 3:20; εἰσπορεύομαι, Acts 28:30; ἐκπορεύομαι, Matthew 3:5; Mark 1:5; ἐξέρχομαι, John 18:29, 38; 2 Corinthians 8:17; Hebrews 13:13; ἐπιστρέφω, to turn (oneself), Acts 9:40; 2 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; ἐπισυνάγεσθαι, Mark 1:33; ἔρχομαι, Matthew 3:14; Matthew 7:15, and often; ἥκω, John 6:37; Acts 28:23 (Rec.); καταβαίνω, Acts 10:21; Acts 14:11; Revelation 12:12; μεταβαίνω, John 13:1; ὀρθρίζω, Luke 21:38; παραγίνομαι, Matthew 3:13; Luke 7:4, 20; Luke 8:19; Luke 11:6; ( Tdf.); πορεύομαι, Matthew 10:6; Luke 11:5; John 14:12, etc.; συνάγεσθαι, Matthew 13:2; Matthew 27:62; Mark 4:1; Mark 6:30; Mark 7:1; συντρέχειν, Acts 3:11; ὑπάγω, Matthew 26:18; Mark 5:19; John 7:33; John 13:3; John 16:5, 10, 16 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets the clause), ; κατευθύνειν τήν ὁδόν,1 Thessalonians 3:11; also after (kindred) nouns: εἴσοδος, 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:1; προσαγωγή, Ephesians 2:18. after verbs of moving, leading, sending, drawing, bringing, directing: ἄγω, Mark 11:7 (R L); Luke 18:40; John 1:42 (43); (John 18:13 L T Tr WH); Acts 9:27, etc.; ἀπάγω, Matthew 26:57 (R. V. to the house of C. (cf. Acts 16:40 above)); Mark 14:53; John 18:13 (R G); Acts 23:17; 1 Corinthians 12:2; (ἐξάγω ἕως πρός (see ἕως, II. 2 c.), Luke 24:50 L text T Tr WH); κατασύρω, Luke 12:58; ἁρπάζω, Revelation 12:5; ἑλκύω, John 12:32; παραλαμβάνω, John 14:3; φέρω, Mark 1:32; Mark 9:17, 19, 20; (Mark 11:7 T Tr WH); πέμπω, Luke 7 : (not T WH),19; Acts 25:21 (L T Tr WH ἀναπέμψω), etc. (see πέμπω); ἀναπέμπω, Luke 23:7, 15; ἀποστέλλω, Matthew 23:34, etc. (see ἀποστέλλω, 1b. and d.); στρέφομαι, Luke 7:44; Luke 23:28. after verbs of falling: πίπτειν πρός τούς πόδας τίνος, Mark 5:22; Mark 7:25; (Acts 5:10 L T Tr WH); Revelation 1:17. after other verbs and substantives with which the idea of direction is connected: as ἐπιστολή πρός τινα, Acts 9:2; Acts 22:5; 2 Corinthians 3:1; ἐντολή, Acts 17:15; ἀνάδειξις, Luke 1:80; κάμπτω τά γόνατα, Ephesians 3:14; ἐκπετάννυμι τάς χεῖρας, Romans 10:21 (from Isaiah 65:2); πρόσωπον πρός πρόσωπον, face (turned) to face, i. e. in immediate presence, 1 Corinthians 13:12 (after the Hebrew, Genesis 32:30; Judges 6:22); στόμα πρός στόμα, mouth (turned) to mouth, i. e. in each other's presence, 2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:14 (see στόμα, 1); λαλεῖν πρός τό οὖς, the mouth being put to the ear, Luke 12:3. after verbs of adding, joining to: προστιθεναι τινα πρός τούς πατέρας, to lay one unto, i. e. bury him by the side of, his fathers, Acts 13:36 (after the Hebrew, 2 Kings 22:20; Judges 2:10); θάπτειν τινα πρός τινα, Acts 5:10. after verbs of saying (because speech is directed toward someone), invoking, swearing, testifying, making known: with an accusative of the person, ἀνοίγω τό στόμα, 2 Corinthians 6:11; Luke 1:13, and very often by Luke; John 4:48; John 7:3, etc.; Hebrews 1:13; λαλέω, Luke 1:19, 55; Luke 2:18, etc.; 1 Thessalonians 2:2; Hebrews 5:5; Hebrews 11:18; λέγω, Luke 5:36, etc.; John 2:3; John 4:15, etc.; Hebrews 7:21; φημί, Luke 22:70; Acts 2:38 (R G); , etc.; διαλέγομαι, Acts 24:12; ἀποκρίνομαι, Luke 4:4; Acts 3:12; δέομαι, Acts 8:24; βοάω, Luke 18:7 (R G L); αἴρειν φωνήν, Acts 4:24; εὔχομαι, 2 Corinthians 13:7; ὄμνυμι, Luke 1:73; μάρτυς εἰμί, Acts 13:31; Acts 22:15; δημηγορέω, Acts 12:21; κατηγορέω, to accuse to, bring, as it were, to the judge by accusation, John 5:45; ἐμφανίζω, Acts 23:22; γνωρίζεται, be made known unto, Philippians 4:6. also after (kindred) substantives (and phrases): ἀπολογία, addressed unto one, Acts 22:1; λόγος, 2 Corinthians 1:18; λόγος παρακλήσεως, Acts 13:15; ὁ λόγος γίνεται πρός τινα, John 10:35 (Genesis 15:1, 4; Jeremiah 1:2, 11; Jeremiah 13:8; Ezekiel 6:1; Hosea 1:1); γίνεται φωνή, Acts 7:31 Rec.; ; γίνεται ἐπαγγελία, Acts 13:32 and Rec. in (where L T Tr WH εἰς); προσευχή, Romans 15:30; δέησις, Romans 10:1; προσφέρειν δεήσεις, Hebrews 5:7. πρός ἀλλήλους after ἀντιβάλλειν λόγους, Luke 24:17; Luke 8taXaXe(p, Luke 6:11; διαλέγεσθαι, Mark 9:34; διαλογίζεσθαι, Mark 8:16; εἰπεῖν, Luke 2:15 ((L marginal reading T WH λαλεῖν)); ; John 16:17; John 19:24; λέγειν, Mark 4:41; Luke 8:25; John 4:33; Acts 28:4; ὁμιλεῖν, Luke 24:14; συλλαλεῖν, Luke 4:36. πρός ἑαυτούς equivalent to πρός ἀλλήλους: after συζητεῖν, Mark 1:27 (T WH text read simply αὐτούς (as subjunctive)); ; Luke 22:23; εἰπεῖν, Mark 12:7; John 12:19; λέγειν, Mark 16:3; ἀγανακτεῖν (R. V. had indignation among themselves. saying), Mark 14:4 T WH (cf. Tr); see 2 b. below.
Reply
Do you agree with Joachim Jeremias that a semitism appears in Mk 3:14?
If 'yes,' do you think that such a semitism also appears in:
1 Samuel 12:6?
Acts 2:36?
Hebrews 3:2?

Mark 3:14 (Douay-Rheims)
https://biblehub.com/mark/3-14.htm
And he made that twelve should be with him,
and that he might send them to preach.

Mark 3:14 (W&H, NA28 variants)
https://biblehub.com/texts/mark/3-14.htm
καὶ ἐποίησεν δώδεκα, οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν,
ἵνα ὦσιν μετ' αὐτοῦ καὶ ἵνα ἀποστέλλῃ αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν

Mark 3:16 (W&H, NA28 variants)
https://biblehub.com/texts/mark/3-16.htm
καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα
καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον,

Joachim Jeremias, _New Testament Theology: The Proclamation of Jesus_ (1971), 330pp., 233
https://www.amazon.com/New-Testament-The...334016266/
....the phrase ποιεῖν (τοὺς) δώδεκα (Mark 3.14, 16) is also a Semitism.

Mark 3:14, Barnes' Notes on the Bible
https://biblehub.com/commentaries/mark/3-14.htm
He ordained twelve - The word rendered "ordained" here does not express our notion of ordination to the ministry. It means, literally, "he made" - that is, he "appointed" twelve to be with him.

Mark 3:14, Expositor's Greek Testament
https://biblehub.com/commentaries/mark/3-14.htm
καὶ ἐποίησε δώδεκα: and He made, constituted as a compact body, Twelve, by a second selection. For use of ποιεῖν in this sense vide [see/ consult] 1 Samuel 12:6, Acts 2:36, Hebrews 3:2. God “made” Jesus as Jesus “made” the Twelve. What the process of “making” in the case of the Twelve consisted in we do not know.

Acts 2:36 (Berean Literal)
https://biblehub.com/acts/2-36.htm
Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that
God has made Him both Lord and Christ--
this Jesus whom you crucified."

Hebrews 3:2 (Douay-Rheims)
https://biblehub.com/hebrews/3-2.htm
Who is faithful to him that made him,
as was also Moses in all his house.

1 Samuel 12:6 (Young's Literal)
https://biblehub.com/1_samuel/12-6.htm
And Samuel saith unto the people,
'Jehovah -- He who made Moses and Aaron,
and who brought up your fathers out of the land of Egypt!
Reply
Do you think a native Greek speaker would write 'to Ephraim called a city'?

John 11:54, interlinear
https://biblehub.com/greek/3739.htm
who/which/that/this Therefore Jesus no longer publicly periepatei/περιεπάτει/walked among
the Jews but went away from there into the region near the wilderness
eis/εἰς/to
Ἐφραὶμ/Ephraim
legomenēn/λεγομένην/called
polin/πόλιν/a city
And there He stayed with the disciples

=======================================================.
Do you think a native Greek speaker would write:
'in Shushan the castle'?
'in the castle/fortress/citadel Shushan'?

Daniel 8:2 (JPS Tanakh 1917)
https://biblehub.com/daniel/8-2.htm
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/daniel/8-2.htm
And I saw in the vision; now it was so, that when I saw, I was in Shushan the castle, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in the vision, and I was by the stream Ulai.
looking at interlinear, which gets read left to right:
that I [was] in Shushan the citadel

=======================================================.
Do you think a native Greek speaker would write:
'Bethlehem the village'?
'the village Bethlehem'?

John 7:42 (Berean Literal)
https://biblehub.com/john/7-42.htm
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/john/7-42.htm
Has not the Scripture said that
Christ comes out of the seed of David,
and from Bethlehem, the village where David was?"
Greek:
kai/καὶ/and
apo/ἀπὸ/from
Bēthleem/Βηθλεὲμ
tēs/τῆς/the
kōmēs/κώμης/village

=======================================================.
Do you think a native Greek speaker would write:
"of the Skull Place"?
"Place of the Skull"?

John 19:17 (HCSB)
https://biblehub.com/john/19-17.htm
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/john/19-17.htm
Carrying His own cross,
He went out to what is called Skull Place,
which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.
Greek:
eis/εἰς/to
ton/τὸν/the
legomenon/λεγόμενον/called
Kraniou/Κρανίου/of the Skull
topon/τόπον/Place

=======================================================.
Do you think a native Greek speaker would write:
"Sheshbazzar is his name"?
"named Sheshbazzar"?

Ezra 5:14 (YLT)
https://biblehub.com/ezra/5-14.htm
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/ezra/5-14.htm
....them hath Cyrus the king brought forth out of the temple of Babylon, and they have been given
to one, Sheshbazzar is his name, whom he made governor,
interlinear:
lə·šê·šə·baṣ·ṣar/לְשֵׁשְׁבַּצַּ֣ר/to one Sheshbazzar
šə·mêh/שְׁמֵ֔הּ/named
dî/דִּ֥י/whom
p̄e·ḥāh/פֶחָ֖ה/governor
śā·mêh/שָׂמֵֽהּ׃/he had made

Do you think a native Greek speaker would write:
"Nicodemus name to him"?
"named Nicodemus"?

John 3:1 (YLT)
https://biblehub.com/john/3-1.htm
https://biblehub.com/interlinear/john/3-1.htm
And there was a man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus his name, a ruler of the Jews,
Nikodēmos/Νικόδημος/Nicodemus
onoma/ὄνομα/name
autō/αὐτῷ/to him
archōn/ἄρχων/a ruler
tōn/τῶν/of the
Ioudaiōn/Ἰουδαίων/Jews

=======================================================.
version 2.5, Rev "7:17 for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shepherds them,
and leads them to springs of waters of life.
And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes."

Do you think a native Greek speaker would write:
"waters of life"?
'waters living'?
'living/fresh/not-stagnant water'?

Rev 7:17 (DLNT)
https://biblehub.com/revelation/7-17.htm
Because the Lamb at _the_ center _of_ the throne will shepherd them,
and guide them to springs _of the_ waters _of_ life.
And God will wipe-away every tear from their eyes”.
Reply
David Robert Palmer, translation from the Greek of John
https://www.academia.edu/29678318/The_Gospel_of_JOHN
I see three different meanings of the words "the Jews" in the gospel of John:
1. "The Jews" means "Judeans." ....
By Jesus' time, there were at least three "castes" of Israelites.
The "highest" or "purest" caste was comprised of the "Jews" of Jerusalem and Judea, who felt superior for another reason also: more of them maintained knowledge of the Hebrew language.
The second caste was the Israelites in the far north and northeast, called the Galileans. Fewer of these knew Hebrew, and knew rather their native tongue, Aramaic; and many also spoke Greek and some Latin, because of their geo-political situation.
The third and bottom caste was the "Samaritans" of Samaria. These literally were "untouchable," as in Diatessaron 6:7 and John 4:9. Even the second caste, Galileans, looked down on Samaritans. The town of Nazareth, where Jesus was from, was fairly close to Samaria. It was also said of Jesus that he was a Samaritan: "The Jews answered and said to him, 'Do we not rightly say that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon?'" (John 8:48) When a Galilean man, Nathaniel, was told to come meet Jesus of Nazareth, Nathaniel said, "Is it possible for anything good to be from Nazareth?" (Diatessaron 5:14; John 1:46) The disciples James and John were perfectly willing to call down fire from heaven and burn up Samaritans; see Diatessaron 18:2; Luke 9:54.
....
2. The leaders of Pharisaic or Rabbinical Judaism. ....
3. False Jews
Reply
Where Greek NT mss. have "Christos," the Aramaic has 'Meshikha.' Do you think "Christos" should be rendered:
'King'? 'the Annointed'? a mere transliteration?

The Least Translated Word
http://matthewbryan.net/mystery1.html
"Christ" (our treasured title for Jesus) is an untranslated word with serious implications. The Hebrew scriptures promised for centuries a King would come to Israel, bringing peace to all the world. In a few key passages, that King was called, "the Anointed." In Hebrew, the word for anointed is "meshiach" which many pronounce as messiah. By the time Jesus was born, the people of Israel spoke of their coming king by the title "Meshiach." Therefore literally, they were calling the coming King "the Anointed."

In Greek, the word for Anointed was Christos. Oddly enough, Christos is rarely ever translated into English as literally "Anointed" nor translated as it was meant: "King." Instead, most Bible translators choose to simply change the sound of the Greek word Christos into "Christ" as if it were the second name of Jesus. Christ is not His last name like Smith or Jones. Rather, Jesus has a job-title like plumber, florist, or "King." Every time our Bibles say "Christ" we lose the meaning of His job as King because we see "Christ" as if it were only His name.
Consider how much richer scripture sounds when Christos is translated. ....
Reply
For Mk 14:25, is the sense better rendered in English with:
"in the Kingdom of God"?
"when God will have set up his rule/reign/lordship/dominion"?

CVB Mk 14:25 Most certainly I tell you,
I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine,
until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God."

_The Eucharistic Words of Jesus_ by Joachim Jeremias (1966), 278pp., 184
https://www.amazon.com/Eucharistic-Words...334004144/
14.25, ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ ('in the kingdom of God'). βασιλείᾳ does not signify in this phrase the kingdom as something spatial, to which it would approximate in the Greek understanding, but has rather-- as always _malkut_-- a dynamic significance. One should compare the chronological statement in Dan. 6.29: _bemalkut Doryawes_ 'under the reign (lordship, dominion) of Darius'. Correspondingly, 'in the kingdom of God' is not a local, but a temporal declaration: 'when God will have set up his rule'.
Reply
For Mk 14:24, is the sense better rendered in English with:
"for many"?
"for everybody"?

CVB Mk 14:24 He said to them,
“This is my blood of the covenant,
which is poured out for many.

_The Eucharistic Words of Jesus_ by Joachim Jeremias (1966), 278pp., 179-182
https://www.amazon.com/Eucharistic-Words...334004144/
14.24, πολλῶν ('many'). While 'many' in Greek (as in English) stands in opposition to 'all', and therefore has the exclusive sense ('_many, but not all_'), Hebrew _rabbim_ can have the inclusive sense ('_the whole, comprising many individuals_'). This inclusive use is connected with the fact that Hebrew and Aramaic possess no word for 'all'. ....

In the New Testament, Rom. 5.15 is the clearest example for this inclusive use of οἱ πολλοὶ.
'For if many (οἱ πολλοὶ) died through one man's trespass,
much more have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace
of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many (εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς).'
Here the meaning of οἱ πολλοὶ as 'all men' is secured not only by the double contrast with 'the one', but also by the meaning: 'the many died' must mean 'all men died' (οἱ πολλοὶ in 5.15a = πάντες ἄνθρωποί in 5.12 = πάντες in I Cor. 15.22). The same holds true for Rom. 5.19.... Further, cf. Mark 9.26... Rom. 12.5... I Cor. 10.17a... 1 Cor. 10.33... Heb. 12.15.... It is used adjectivally in Luke 7.47....

When IV Ezra 8.3 reads
_multi quidem creati sunt,
pauci autem salvabuntur_
('Many have been created,
but few shall be saved', RSV),
the first clause 'many have been created' obviously embraces _all_ men; similarly the anarthous πολλοὶ in the strictly analogously constructed sentence 'For many (πολλοὶ) are called, but few are chosen' (Matt. 22.14) is to be understood inclusively as 'all'. The first clause, πολλοὶ γάρ εἰσιν κλητοὶ 'for all are called (to the salvation meal)', does not speak therefore of God's selection by predestination, but of the boundlessness of his invitation. That may be the solution to this _crux interpretum_! ....
Rom 4.17-18.... Gen. 17.5.... II Cor. 1.11.... Mark 10.45.... Isa. 53.10-12.... I Tim. 2.6....
Just as Mark 10.45, so also our passage Mark 14.24 is to be interpreted _in the inclusive sense_.
πολλῶν is therefore a semitism.
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