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book of Hebrews: better from Greek, or Aramaic?
Re: the false prophets that led Israel astray into wickedness, about whom God said in Jeremiah 23:39-40, "I will surely remove you, and *I will cast you away, both you and the city [i.e. Jerusalem] that I gave to you* and your fathers; And I will bring an everlasting reproach upon you," when did that occur?
Re: Jeremiah 23:5-6, "I will raise up for David a righteous Heir, and he shall reign over the kingdom with understanding, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In his days Judah shall be saved," when did that occur?

Jeremiah 23 (Peshitta Tanakh, Lamsa translation),
1 *WOE to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture!*
says the LORD.
2 *Therefore thus speaks the LORD God of Israel*
*against the shepherds who feed my people:*
You have scattered my flock,
and have caused them to go astray,
and have not visited them;
*behold, I will punish you according to your evil doings,*
says the LORD.
3 *And I will gather the remnant of my flock*
*out of all the countries where I have driven them,*
and I will bring them again to their folds;
and they shall be fruitful and increase.
4 *And I will set shepherds over them who shall feed them;*
and they shall fear no more, nor be scattered nor shall they go astray,
says the LORD.
5 Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD,
when *I will raise up for David a righteous Heir,*
*and he shall reign over the kingdom with understanding,*
*and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.*
6 *In his days Judah shall be saved*
and Israel shall dwell securely;
*and this is the name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.*
10 For the land is full of adulterers and robbers;
because of these men the land mourns
and the pastures of the shepherds in the wilderness are dried up,
and their yield has been poor,
and they did not flourish.
11 For both prophets and priests have become pagans;
yea, even in my house have I found their wickedness, says the LORD.
32 Behold, I am against the prophets who see false dreams, says the LORD,
and tell them, and lead my people astray by their lies and their wantonness;
yet I did not command them nor send them;
so they do not profit this people at all.
39 *Therefore, behold, I will surely remove you,*
*and I will cast you away,*
*both you and the city that I gave to you and your fathers;*
40 *And I will bring an everlasting reproach upon you,*
and a perpetual shame which shall not be forgotten.
Re: Daniel 2, when was the "everlasting kingdom, which shall never be destroyed," but rather, "shall stand for ever," established?

Daniel 2 (Peshitta Tanakh, Lamsa translation),
34 Then you saw that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon its feet that were of iron and clay, and broke them to pieces.
35 Then the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold were all broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors;
and a strong wind carried them away so that no place was found for them;
and the stone that struck the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.
36 This is the dream;
now I will tell its interpretation before the king. ....
44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up an everlasting kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and bring to an end all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
45 Forasmuch as you saw that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold;
the great God has made known to you what shall come to pass in the latter days.
The dream is true, and its interpretation is sure.

Targum Genesis,
Jehuda, thou art praise and not shame;
thy brethren shall praise thee;[11]
thy hand shall prevail against thine adversaries,
thine enemies shall be dispersed;
they will be turned backward before thee,
and the sons of thy father will come before thee with salutations.
The dominion shall be (thine) in the beginning,
and in the end the kingdom shall be increased from the house of Jehuda,
because from the judgment of death, my son, hast thou withdrawn.[12]
He shall repose, and abide in strength as a lion, and as a lioness,
there shall be no king that may cut him off.
*He who exerciseth dominion shall not pass away from the house of Jehuda,*
nor the saphra from his children's children for ever,
*until the Meshiha come, whose is the kingdom,*
*and unto whom shall be the obedience of the nations* (or, whom the peoples shall obey).
Israel shall pass round about in his cities;
*the people shall build his temple,*
*they will be righteous round about him,*
*and be doers of the law through his doctrine.*
*Of goodly purple will be his raiment,*
*and his vesture of crimson wool with colours.[13]*
His mountains shall be red with his vineyards,
and his hills be dropping with wine;
his valleys shall be white with corn,
and with flocks of sheep.
[11] Sam. Vers. "love thee."
[12] Or, "gone up."
[13] Or, "wool dyed bright with colours."
"Is Hebrew Aramaic"
No, but they're both Semitic, and are very similar. Discussion of Aramaic & Hebrew is in George M. Lamsa's Introduction to his translation of the Aramaic Peshitta:

Are you aware of *anything* good that Yeshua Meshikha has brought to the world?
Do you approve of men daily thanking God that God didn't make them women?
How Christianity Changed the World
Does Judaism discriminate against women? - 10 Jun 2009 all Orthodox synagogues men pray separately from women and in many women are relegated to an upstairs gallery. Gender hierarchies are entrenched in Jewish thought: a blessing orthodox Jewish men are required to say everyday thanks a God "who has not made me a woman".

"All of the laws of the offerings are relevant in the Temple alone (Leviticus 17:1-7)"
Do you agree with me that sacrifices to the God of Israel were properly done prior to Soloman's construction of the 1st temple?
I don't notice the word "temple" here-- do you?:

Leviticus 17 (JPS Tanakh 1917),
1 And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:
2 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them:
This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, saying:
3 What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it without the camp, 4 and hath not *brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD,* blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people. 5 To the end that the children of Israel may *bring their sacrifices,* which they sacrifice in the open field, even that they may bring them *unto the LORD, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest, and sacrifice them* for sacrifices of peace-offerings unto the LORD. 6 *And the priest shall* dash the blood against the altar of the LORD at the door of the tent of meeting, and make the fat smoke for a sweet savour unto the LORD.
7 And they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices unto the satyrs, after whom they go astray. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations. 8And thou shalt say unto them: Whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that offereth a burnt-offering or sacrifice, 9 and bringeth it not *unto the door of the tent of meeting,* to sacrifice it unto the LORD, even that man shall be cut off from his people.

"If the blood offerings of Scripture are so important why don’t we find Christians yearning for their restoration as do the Jews?"
The Messiah came, and that Messiah is Yeshua the Meshikha. Nobody currently is under the Old Covenant, but rather, we're in the New Covenant period, which doesn't have blood offerings. Do you think blood offerings need to be started up again? If 'yes,' for what reasons do they need to be resumed?
"There's an abundance of evidence that Mark was first"
What are 3 of the strongest lines of evidence that Mark was first?
Which gospel had the priority for:
Mt 3:7-10 = Mk ---- = Lk 3:7-9?
Mt 3:11-12 = Mk 1:7-8 = Lk 3:15-18?
Mt 4:1-11 = Mk 1:12-13 = Lk 4:1-13?
Mt 5:3-13 = Mk ---- = Lk 6:20-23?
Mt 5:43-48 = Mk 11:25 = Lk 6:27-28, 32-36?
Mt 6:9-15 = Mk 11:25-26 = Lk 11:2-4?
Mt 6:19-21 = Mk ---- = Lk 12:33-34?
"It has never said 'according to the order of Melchizedek'. Please, cite one text that ACTUALLY says this. There are none"

Psalm 110:4 (Peshitta Tanakh, Lamsa translation),
The LORD has sworn, and will not lie,
You are a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.

Psalm 110:4 (Brenton Septuagint Translation),
The Lord sware, and will not repent,
Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec.

DSS: lost to the sands of time.

Targum Psalm 110,
1. Composed by David, a psalm. The Lord said in his decree to make me lord of all Israel, but he said to me, “Wait still for Saul of the tribe of Benjamin to die, for one reign must not encroach on another; and afterwards I will make your enemies a prop for your feet.” Another Targum: The Lord spoke by his decree to give me the dominion in exchange for sitting in study of Torah. “Wait at my right hand until I make your enemies a prop for your feet.” Another Targum: The Lord said in his decree to appoint me ruler over Israel, but the Lord said to me, “Wait for Saul of the tribe of Benjamin to pass away from the world; and afterwards you will inherit the kingship, and I will make your enemies a prop for your feet.”
2. The Lord will send from Zion the rod of your strength, and you will rule in the midst of your enemies.
3. Your people are those of the house of Israel who devote themselves to the Torah; you will be helped in the day of your making battle with them; in the glories of holiness the mercies of God will hasten to you like the descent of dew; your offspring dwell securely.
4. *The Lord has sworn and will not turn aside, that*
*you are appointed leader in the age to come,*
*because of the merit that you were a righteous king.*
5. The presence of the Lord is at your right hand; he struck down kings on the day of his anger.
6. He was appointed judge over the Gentiles; the earth is full of the bodies of the slain wicked; he smote the heads of kings on the earth, very many.
7. He will receive instruction from the mouth of the prophet on the way; because of this, he will lift up his head.

Who are you having this discussion with? Are you just posting to yourself and replying to yourself?
+Shamasha Paul bar-Shimun de'Beth-Younan
[Image: sig.jpg]
(05-13-2019, 04:32 AM)Paul Younan Wrote: DavidFord,

Who are you having this discussion with?  Are you just posting to yourself and replying to yourself?

The posts were largely 1st made in response to comments by 'Jews' commenting on Tovia Singer youtube videos.  At I've seen only 2 replies to what was posted in this thread.
There appears to me to be 2 mistranslations present in the Greek version of Revelation: a whore being thrown into a bed of all places (the Aramaic allows for her being thrown onto a bier i.e. a funeral bier), and Jesus being said to have female breasts. Are you aware of anything in the Aramaic Revelation that appears to you to be mistranslations from Greek? Do you think those "illiterate fishermen" who dictated the NT: spoke Greek? spoke Aramaic? dictated in Greek? dictated in Aramaic?
"I don't doubt that the copying of the Bible has been corrupted"  
Yes, there has been some (minor) corruption.

"But how can I know for sure that what the gospels written down are 100% what Jesus said exactly"
They're not.  E.g. the Lord's Prayer in Matthew in Aramaic rhymes extremely well, while Luke's version rhymes less perfectly-- Luke lacks "100% what Jesus said exactly" when compared with Matthew's rendition.

"Like when he said to the paralyzed person your sins are forgiven. Or, I and the father are one.  He who has seen me has seen the father, and all those Godly Claims while he was alive.  How can I be sure the authors wrote down exactly what Jesus said and did not exaggerate them since I don't have any other sources outside the Bible to compare them to"

Luke was a careful historian.  I'm not aware of anyone claiming Luke was prone to exaggerating things.

The NT was originally in Aramaic, not Greek.  Tatian compiled his Diatesseron from the Aramaic 4 Gospels, and he died in A.D. 175.  It was later translated into Arabic, which we have to this day.  You can consult a) the Diatesseron and b) the Assyrian Church of the East's Aramaic Peshitta of the NT (they say they got the NT books directly from its authors), and compare what's there with the multiplicity of variant Greek readings to see what the original readings were.
Aramaic Peshitta New Testament, Often Bolstered by the Diatesseron, Adjudicating Between Conflicting Greek Manuscripts

Many of Jesus' original students went to their violent deaths believing and proclaiming that he'd died and rose again.  Many people (e.g., Muslim suicide bombers) die for ideas they erroneously consider true.  But nobody willingly undergoes premature death on behalf of a lie they know to be a lie.
Shekinah in the Targums
David, is your website, and if so, did you put that interlinear together that is featured at that site? If so, there is a glaring mistake at Hebrews 2:9 where the western Peshitto reading has been cut off from the end of the verse.
Do you agree with me that: Jesus died? Jesus was crucified?
Jesus died from crucifixion? Jesus was raised up alive?

Quran, Arberry translation
3:135 .... Muhammad is naught but a Messenger; *Messengers have passed away before him.*
*Why, if he should die or is slain, will you turn about on your heels?* .... 3:140 ....
19:30 Mary pointed to the child then; but they said, 'How shall we speak to one who is still in
the cradle, a little child?' He said, 'Lo, I am God's servant; God has given me the Book, and
made me a Prophet. Blessed He has made me, wherever I may be; and He has enjoined me to
pray, and to give the alms, so long as I live, and likewise to cherish my mother; He has not
made me arrogant, unprosperous. Peace be upon me, the day I was born,
*and the day I die, and the day I am raised up alive!'* 19:35 That is Jesus, son of Mary,
in word of truth, concerning which they are doubting. ....

Sura 4, Quran, Arberry translation 150 .... So, for their breaking the compact, and disbelieving in the signs of God, and
*slaying the Prophets without right,* and for their saying, 'Our hearts are uncircumcised'
- nay, but God sealed them for their unbelief, so they believe not, except a few -
155 and for their unbelief, and their uttering against Mary a mighty calumny, and for their
saying, 'We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God' - yet they did not
slay him, neither crucified him, only a likeness of that was shown to them. Those who are at
variance concerning him surely are in doubt regarding him; they have no knowledge of him,
except the following of surmise; and they slew him not of a certainty - no indeed;
*God raised him up to Him;* God is All-mighty, All-wise.
There is not one of the People of the Book but will assuredly *believe in him before his death,*
and on the Resurrection Day he will be a witness against them.

By the way, that rendering of 4:158 is a mistranslation:

_The Qur'an: Misinterpreted, Mistranslated, and Misread. The Aramaic Language of the Qur'an_ (2006) by Gabriel Sawma On 221-226:
*Waqawlihim inna qatalna al Massih 'Issa ibn Maryam rasul Allah, wama qataluhu wama salabuhu walaken shubbiha lahum,* Q. 4:158....
Contrary to the Hadith interpretation of the Qur'anic verse, and contrary to the translation mentioned above, and to the erroneous interpretation rendered by Abdullah Yussuf Ali, the Qur'an does not deny the death and Crucifixion of Jesus, the Messiah. In fact the Aramaic language of the Qur'an is identical to the story of Crucifixion mentioned in the New Testament.

The Qur'anic conjugation "w" in the word "[w]ama" is similar to Aramaic "w" meaning 'so, then, and'; Akkadian "u". The Qur'anic word "wama" has been interpreted erroneously as 'did not'. Syriac "wmo, or wma" is an interrogative pronoun [that] means 'what'. For example: Syriac "wmo li wlokh" or "wma li wlokh" means 'and what have I to do with you'. The Qur'anic verse, "wama qataluhu" is identical to Aramaic "wm qtlhu", Syriac "wmo qatluuy, or wma qatluuy" means 'what they slew'. The Qur'anic verse "wama salabuuhu" is identical to Syriac "wmo salbuuy or wma salbuuy" meaning 'what they crucified'. In other words, the Qur'an is saying: 'what they slew and what they crucified', a confirmation of the death and crucifixion of Jesus, the Messiah.

The Qur'anic word "walaaken" has been interpreted erroneously as 'but'. Aramaic "lkn". The initial "l" is a preposition, it means 'to, for, in regard to'. When the suffixes are added, it is pronounced 'li (mine), lokh, or lakh (yours, sing.), leh (his), loh (hers), lan (ours), lkhuun (yours, plural), lkhen (yours, fem. Plu.). When the vowel sign /a/ is added to the Syriac "lkhen", it turns into "lakhen", Arabic "laken" means 'to you' (fem. Plural). It is important to keep in mind that the early Qur'anic manuscripts did not use the vowel signs. Thus the original word used in the Qur'an was "lkn" as in Syriac "Iken, or lkhen" meaning (yours, fem. Plu.), which is found in Syriac Peshito (Ezekiel 13:18) and Biblia Hebraica "lknh" (Eze. 13:18). The reference to feminine plural in the Qur'anic verse is compatible with the Biblical event, which is mentioned in Matthew 27:55. It reads the following: *"There were many women there, looking on from a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee and helped him. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the wife of Zebede".* The the [sic] Qur'anic verse addresses those women, who were present at the Crucifixion, by saying 'to you'.

The Qur'anic word "shubbiha" has been interpreted erroneously as 'he was made to appear to them like the one crucified'. Syriac "shabah" means 'glory'. The Qur'anic preposition "lahum" is equivalent to Aramaic "lhmh" meaning 'in regard to them, in reference to them' (Jer. 14:16).

The correct interpretation is: 'and they say, we did kill the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah, what they slew, and what they crucified, and to you (the women who followed Jesus at the Crucifixion) he is glorified and to them (his followers) as well'. In other words, the Qur'an confirms the death and crucifixion of Jesus, but the Aramaic language of the verse was misinterpreted by Muslim commentators. The following verse confirms the killing of Jesus Christ. See below.

*Inna qatalna almaseeh 'eesa ibn maryam,* Q. 4:158, trans. 'we killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary'. Syr. *"hnan qtalnan yeshou'msheeho bar Maryam".*

Bal Rafa'ahu allahu ilayhi, Q. 4:159. Muslim commentators render the following interpretations:
1- 'On the contrary, Allah *exalted* him to Himself (M. Sher Ali);
2- 'Nay, God *raised him up* unto Himself' (A. Yusuf Ali);
3- 'But Allah *took him up* unto Himself (M. M. Pickthall).
Abdullah Yusuf Ali offers the following explanation:

Cited in "There is difference of opinion as to the exact interpretation of this verse. The words are:
The Jews did not kill Jesus, but Allah raised him up (_rafa'ahu_) to Himself.
One school holds that Jesus did not die the usual human death but still lives in the body in heaven, which is generally accepted Muslim view. Another holds that he did die (5:117) but not when he was supposed to be crucified, and that his being "raised up" unto Allah means that instead of being disgraced as a malefactor, as the Jews intended, he was on the contrary honored by Allah as His messenger; (see 4:159). The same word _rafa'a_ is used in association with honor in connection with _al-Mustafa_ in 94:4." [1]

In his effort to deny what the Qur'an confirms, the first translator intentionally interpreted the Arabic word "rafa'a" which means 'raise him up' and replaced it with the word 'Allah exalted him'. As any Arabic speaking [person] knows, the word 'exalted' is not a synonym to "rafa'a". The Qur'an is saying that: 'Allah raised him (i.e. Jesus) up.' The other two translators confirm this.
*Wa inna min ahli alkitabi ilia layu'min bihi qabla mawtihi,* Q. 4:160. Muslim commentators render the following interpretations:
1- 'and there is none among the People of the Book but will believe in it before his death' (M. Sher Ali);
2- 'There is not one of the People of the Scripture but will believe in him before his death' (M. M. Pickthall);
3- 'and there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death' (A. Yusuf Ali). The commentator writes the following explanation:

_Commentary on Yusuf Ali's Translation_, Version 1.08, by Yusuf Ali @665. Before his death: Interpreters are not agreed as to the exact meaning. Those who hold that Jesus did not die refer the pronoun "his" to Jesus. They say that Jesus is still living in the body and that he will appear just before the Final Day, after the coming of the Mahdi, when the world will be purified of sin and unbelief. There will be a final death before the final Resurrection, but all will have believed before that final death. Others think that "his" is better referred, to "none of the People of the Book", and that the emphatic form "must believe" (la-yu' minanna) denotes more a question of duty than of fact.

There is no question that this part of verse 4:160, could not be interpreted within the context of the Arabic language. The disagreement among Muslim commentators 'about the exact meaning' is a perfect example of the interpreter's inability to understand the Syriac language of the text. The Qur'anic term "illa la yu'min" is equivalent to Syriac "elo (ela) lo (la) mhaymen" meaning 'but they do not believe'.

The Qur'an is saying: 'but among the people of the book there are those who did not believe in Jesus before he died'; in other words, Jesus' death was a sign for some people of the book, to believe in him.

'Wama' might be 'and not,' and might instead be 'and/but what.' When you see in your Quran translation a 'not,' as an idea, try replacing the 'not' with 'what.' I did Google translate on:

interlinear for 4:157
We note admissions that the scholars differ as the whether the Qur'anic texts say 'NO' when they should say 'YES' - and that this varies from text to text.
Old Testament: primarily Hebrew, a little Aramaic. New Testament: Aramaic, except for maybe 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude. The NT in Aramaic has 'Allaha' i.e. God, and 'MrYa' i.e. Master YHWH. When the NT was translated into Greek, the MrYa became the generic kurius i.e. lord. Information was left on the translation floor. Fortunately the Assyrian Church of the East has faithfully and carefully transmitted the NT in Aramaic ever since they received the vast bulk of it (not 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, and Revelation). Some NTs translate from the original Aramaic:
translations without 'hell'? accurate translations?

Religious seminaries are reluctant to accept that the Greek manuscripts are translations from Aramaic. The study of Greek is big business, and certain people have built their careers around their knowledge of Greek. But the evidence of Aramaic being original is out there:
3rd post down: Mistranslations in Your NT Translated From Greek,
Which Was Translated From the Original Aramaic

(06-17-2019, 08:28 AM)Thirdwoe Wrote: David, is your website, and if so, did you put that interlinear together that is featured at that site? If so, there is a glaring mistake at Hebrews 2:9 where the western Peshitto reading has been cut off from the end of the verse.

No, it's not mine.
What's the identity of this messenger?:
Exodus 23 (Young's Literal Translation)
20 `Lo, *I am sending a messenger before thee to keep thee in the way,* and to bring thee in unto the place which I have prepared;
21 *be watchful because of his presence,* and *hearken to his voice, rebel not against him,* for he beareth not with your transgression, for *My name [is] in his heart;*
22 for, *if thou diligently hearken to his voice, and hast done all that which I speak,* then I have been at enmity with thine enemies, and have distressed those distressing thee.
23 `For *My messenger goeth before thee,* and hath brought thee in unto the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, and I have cut them off.

hat tip:

Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, Exodus 23
Behold, I will send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee in to the place of My habitation which I have prepared. *Be circumspect before Him, and obey His word, and be not rebellious against His words; for He will not forgive your sins, because His word is in My Name.* For *if thou wilt indeed hearken to His word, and do all that I speak by Him,* I will be the enemy of thy enemy, and will trouble them who trouble thee. For My Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee to the Amoraee, and Pherizaee, and Kenaanaee, Hivaee, and Jebusaee; and I will destroy them.

Targum Onkelos, Exodus 23
Behold, *I send My Angel[6] before thee, to protect thee in the way,* and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Take heed before Him, and *hearken to His words; rebel not against Him, for He will not forgive your sins; for in My Name are His words.* *For if thou wilt truly hearken to His words, and do all that I shall speak,* I will be a foe to thy enemies, and will afflict them that afflict thee. For My Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in, to the Amoraee and Hittaee, and Perizaee and Kenaanaee, Hivaee and Jebusaee; and I will destroy them.
[6] Sam. Vers., shelachi, "my apostle."
Do you agree with me that the prophet Jesus was Allaha's Word? Do you agree with me that many Jews obeyed the Word of Allaha, i.e., obeyed and followed the prophet Jesus?

Quran 4:171,
Only the Messiah, Isa, son (of) Maryam, (was) a Messenger (of) Allah and *His word* which He conveyed to Maryam and a spirit from Him.

Besides the prophet Isa, are you aware of anyone else who was Allaha's Word? (Muhammad?)

John 1 (NKJV),
1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God [original Aramaic in the Peshitta: Allaha], and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
6 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 7 This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all through him might believe. 8 He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light. 9 That was the true Light which gives light to every man coming into the world.
10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11 He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him. 12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name: 13 who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
15 John bore witness of Him and cried out, saying, “This was He of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me is preferred before me, for He was before me.’ ”
16 And of His fullness we have all received, and grace for grace. 17 For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 18 No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him.

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