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"Master YHWH" and "I AM"s in the Peshitta
Transliterations + Translations: Mt 1:23, Mk 15:34, Mk 3:17, Acts 4:36

In several locations in the original Aramaic, a word or phrase is given in one dialect of Aramaic, and then repeated in another dialect of Aramaic. Also, at least once an Aramaic term with several possible meanings is given, and then a more-precise term specifying exactly what is meant is given. In those situations, when the original Aramaic was translated into Greek, the translators transliterated the first instance of the word or phrase, and then translated the repetition (or, the more-precise term). We start by looking at the original Aramaic.

a) Matthew 1:23 (based on Younan)
"Behold, a virgin will conceive and give birth to a son,
and they will call his name Aimnu-Ail,"
which is interpreted 'Aimn Allahan.'
[With-us (is) our-Allaha, i.e. our God is with us]

Note how both the first word and the explanation have "Aimn."
Also, both "Ail" and "Allaha" are Semitic references to God, judging by Mk 15:34:

b) Mark 15:34 (Younan)
And in the ninth hour, Yeshua cried out in a loud voice and said,
"'Ail! Ail! Lamna shwaqthani?'",
that is,
"'Allahi! Allahi! Lamna shwaqthani?'"

Note how both the first phrase and the recasting of it have "Lamna shwaqthani."
Also, "Allahi" is Aramaic for 'my Allaha,' while 'Ail' strikes me as being 'El'-- short for 'Elohim' i.e. a Hebrew term for 'God.' In the OT, both Daniel and Michael have 'El'-- short for 'Elohim'-- as part of their names.

c) Mark 3:16-17 (Younan)
And he named Shimon the name Keepa, and Yaqub the son of Zawdee and Yukhanan the brother of Yaqub, to them he gave the name Bnay-Raghshee [Sons of: Rage, or Tumult, or Thunder, or Feeling-- per Bauscher], that is, Bnay-Raima [Sons of Thunder].

Note how both the first phrase and the more-precise rendering of it have "Bnay."

d) Acts 4:36 (Younan)
Now Yosip, he who was named by the Shelikha [Apostles] "Bar-Naba," which is interpreted "Bara-d'Buyaa" [Son of Comfort/Encouragement], a Levite from the region of Cyprus. . . .

Note how both the first phrase and the other rendering of it have 'Bar,' which is Aramaic for 'son.'

We now look at those passages in the Greek translation of the original Aramaic.

A) Matthew 1:23 (HCSB);MOUNCE
See, the virgin will become pregnant
and give birth to a son,
and they will name Him Immanuel, which is translated "God is with us."

transliteration of the Greek transliteration of the original Aramaic: Emmanouel
transliteration of the Greek translation: theos meta hemeis ho
Notice the stark dissimilarity of the transliteration and translation.

B) Mark 15:34 (HCSB);DLNT
And at three Jesus cried out with a loud voice,
"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"
which is translated,
"My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"

transliteration of the Greek transliteration of the original Aramaic: eloi eloi lema sabachthani
transliteration of the Greek translation: ho ego theos ho ego theos eis tis enkataleipo ego
Notice the stark dissimilarity of the transliteration and translation.

C) Mark 3:16-17 (DLNT);DLNT
And He appointed the twelve, even Peter (He put the name on Simon), and James, the son of Zebedee, and John, the brother of James (and He put on them the name Boanerges, which means "sons of thunder"),

transliteration of the Greek transliteration of the original Aramaic: Boanerges
transliteration of the Greek translation: hyios bronte
Notice the stark dissimilarity of the transliteration and translation.

D) Acts 4:36 (HCSB)
Joseph, a Levite and a Cypriot by birth, the one the apostles called Barnabas, which is translated Son of Encouragement,

transliteration of the Greek transliteration of the original Aramaic: Barnabas
transliteration of the Greek translation: hyios paraklesis.

Notice the stark dissimilarity of the transliteration and translation.
gloss added, and confusion over Simon Peter's father:  John 1:42
John 1:42 (NABRE);DLNT
Then he brought him to Jesus.  Jesus looked at him and said,
"You are Simon the son of John;^a
you will be called Cephas"
(which is translated Peter).
a:  Simon, the son of John:  in Mt 16:17, Simon is called _Bariona_, "son of Jonah," a different tradition for the name of Simon's father.
Who was Simon Peter's father?: 
was it "Ioannes"/John, per Greek mss. for Jn 1:42? 
or was it "Bariona" (which is a transliteration of the original Aramaic, and means 'son of Jonah'), per Greek mss. for Mt 16:17?
The original Aramaic clears up the confusion in Grk mss., since it has the exact same thing in both passages:
Mt 16:17 (based on Younan)
Yeshua answered and said to him,
"Blessed are you Shimon bareh-d'Yona [of-Dove its-son],
because flesh and blood have not revealed (this) to you,
but Abbi [my Father] who is in heaven.
John 1:42-43 (Younan)
And he brought him to Yeshua, and Yeshua gazed at him and said,
"You are Shimon bareh-d'Yona [of-Dove its-son].
You will be called Keepa [Rock]."
And on another day, Yeshua wanted to depart to Galeela. . . .
Note also the transliteration of the Aramaic word for "Rock," plus the gloss that the translator into Greek (or a Greek copyist) added, "Petros" being Greek for "Rock":
John 1:42 (based on NABRE + MOUNCE)
you will be called Kephas"
(which is translated Petros).
transliterations + translations:  Hebrews 7:1-2
The bottom line is that in the original Aramaic for Hebrews 7:1-2, "Mlki-Zdq" got expounded as the partially-similar "Mlka d'Kanutha," while in contrast,
the Greek version has the transliteration "Melchisedek," which it translates as the very-dissimilar "basileus dikaiosyne."
Also, in the original Aramaic, "Mlk Shlim" was expounded as the largely similar "Mlka d'Shlma," while in contrast,
the Greek version has the part-translation, part-transliteration "basileus Salem," which it fully-translates as "basileus eirene."
We start with some Aramaic vocabulary. 
Mlki-Zdq -- King-Righteous, i.e. "Righteous King," or:  "King (of) Righteousness"  [could it be 'my righteous king'?]
(Incidentally, "zadiqa" means "righteous/ just, a righteous/ just man," and "Zaduqia" are Sadducees.)
Mlk-Shlim -- king (of) peace
d'mlka -- of the kings
Mlka-d'Kanutha -- king of righteousness
Mlk-Shlim -- king (of) peace
Mlka-d'Shlma -- king of peace
Hebrews 7:1-2 (based on Etheridge + Khabouris, from
1.  For this Mlki-Zdq is Mlk-Shlim, the priest of Allaha the Most High. 
And he met Abraham when he returned from the slaughter d'mlka [of the kings], and blessed him.
2.  And to him Abraham separated the tenth from everything that he had with him.
Now his name, being expounded, (is) the Mlka-d'Kanutha;
and again, Mlk-Shlim, which is, Mlka-d'Shlma.
Note how in the original Aramaic, there's 6 instances of "mlk"/king, and 3 instances of words having the letters "shlm"/ peace, as the author of Hebrews expresses things slightly differently (in different Aramaic dialects?).
We now take a look at the Greek transliterations and translations of the passage.
Hebrews 7:1-2 (hybrid of DLNT + MOUNCE; the bracketed "his name" is the DLNT's);DLNT
For this Melchisedek [Melchizedek], basileus-Salem [king _of_ Salem], priest _of_ the Most-High God, remains _a_ priest perpetually--  
the _one_ having met Abraham returning from the defeat _of_ the basileus [kings] and having eulogeo [blessed] him;
_to_ whom also Abraham divided dekatos [_a_ tenth] from everything;
_who is_ first ([his name] hermeneuo [being translated]), basileus-dikaiosyne [king _of_ righteousness];
and then also basileus-Salem [king _of_ Salem], which is basileus-eirene [king _of_ peace];
transliterations of the Greek transliterations:
Melchisedek:  1 instance
Salem:  2 instances
transliterations of the Greek translations:
basileus (5 instances; translates the Aramaic mlk/ 'king')
dikaiosyne (translates the Aramaic d'kanutha/ 'of righteousness')
eirene (1 instance; translates the Aramaic shlma/ 'peace')
Greek NT mss. variants for Mt-Jn:
Aramaic Peshitta New Testament, Often Bolstered by the Diatesseron,
Adjudicating Between Conflicting Greek Manuscripts for Mt - Jn
Special Features of Aramaic Peshitta; Corruptions in & Semitic Idioms in Greek Mss.
Semiticism:  discern/ receive/ take/ regard/ accept faces
1.  to show partiality, typically based on mere appearances or resulting from bribery
2.  to take on a face/mask, i.e. to present the appearance of being something that that one is not, i.e. to be hypocritical
Illustrations of Definition 1
From the OT:
Deuteronomy 1:17 Young's Literal Translation (YLT)
ye do not discern faces in judgment;
as the little so the great ye do hear;
ye are not afraid of the face of any,
for the judgment is God's,
and the thing which is too hard for you,
ye bring near unto me,
and I have heard it;
Deuteronomy 16:19 (YLT)
Thou dost not turn aside judgment;
thou dost not discern faces,
nor take a bribe,
for the bribe blindeth the eyes of the wise,
and perverteth the words of the righteous.
2 Chronicles 19:7 (YLT)
and now, let fear of Jehovah be upon you,
observe and do,
for there is not with Jehovah our God perverseness,
and acceptance of faces,
and taking of a bribe.'
Job 13:10 (YLT)
He doth surely reprove you, if in secret ye accept faces.
Proverbs 24:23 (YLT)
These also are for the wise: --
To discern faces in judgment is not good.
Proverbs 28:21 (YLT)
To discern faces is not good,
And for a piece of bread doth a man transgress.
In the NT:
First, some Greek vocabulary.
prosopon:  face/ countenance/ visage, mask
prosopa:  faces, masks
lempsia:  to receive; derived from lambano
Hartin, Patrick J.  2009.  _James_, v. 14 of the Sacra Pagina Series (USA:  Liturgical Press), 324pp.
On 117, with the bracket being Hartin’s:
_while showing acts of favoritism (en prosopolempsiais)_:  The two Greek words _prosopolempsia_ (the noun in 2:1) and _prosopolemptein_ (the verb in 2:9) have not been found in secular Greek or in the LXX (BDAG 887).  They probably originated in early Christian paraenesis to capture the Hebrew _nasa' panim_ ("to lift up the face" [Lev 19:15]; expressed in the LXX as _prosopon lambanein_), literally "to show favoritism," especially in the context of judicial courts.
Below, brackets contain the Greek word, split into its two component parts.
Acts 10:34 (HCSB);DLNT
Then Peter began to speak:
“Now I really understand that God doesn’t show favoritism [prosopo lemptes],
Romans 2:11 (HCSB);DLNT
There is no favoritism [prosopo lempsia] with God.
Ephesians 6:9 (HCSB);DLNT
And masters, treat your slaves the same way,
without threatening them,
because you know that both their Master and yours is in heaven,
and there is no favoritism [prosopo lempsia] with Him.
Colossians 3:25 (HCSB);DLNT
For the wrongdoer will be paid back for whatever wrong he has done,
and there is no favoritism [prosopo lempsia].
James 2:1 (HCSB);DLNT
My brothers, do not show favoritism [prosopo lempsia] as you hold on to the faith in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ.
James 2:9 (HCSB);DLNT
But if you show favoritism [prosopo lempteo], you commit sin and are convicted by the law as transgressors.
1 Peter 1:17 (HCSB);DLNT
And if you address as Father the One who judges impartially [a-prosopo lemptos, i.e. not-partially] based on each one’s work,
you are to conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your temporary residence.
transliteration + translation:  Romans 8:15
In the original Aramaic for Romans 8:15, "Aba"/ Abba is succeeded by the partially-similar "Abun"/ our Abba,
while in contrast,
the Greek version has the transliteration "Abba" succeeded by the very-dissimilar translation "Pater":
Romans 8:15 Young's Literal Translation (YLT), with the brackets having the underlying Greek;DLNT
for ye did not receive a spirit of bondage again for fear,
but ye did receive a spirit of adoption in which we cry, 'Abba -- Father.' [Abba ho Pater]
Romans 8:15 (based on Murdock + Khabouris, from
For you have not received the rukha [spirit] of bondage, again to fear;
but you have received the Rukha [Spirit] of adoption, by which we cry, "Abba, Abbun" [Father, our Father].
Semiticisms:  "flesh and bones," "flesh and blood," "my flesh and bones," "my flesh and blood"
"flesh and bones" and "flesh and blood" =  a human body
"my/your bone and flesh" = "my/your flesh and blood" = my/your:
1) closely-related relative
2) distantly-related relative
3) very-distantly related relative(s)-- i.e. a human or humans, humanity in general, people
4) human body
"bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh" = of my bones and flesh = of my body
Genesis 2:23 Darby Translation (DARBY);NABRE
And Man said,
This time it is bone of my bones
and flesh of my flesh:
this shall be called Woman,
because this was taken out of a man.
"my bone and my flesh" = my closely-related relative
Genesis 29:14 (DARBY);NABRE
And Laban said to him [Jacob],
Thou art indeed my bone and my flesh.
And he abode with him a month's time.
"his bone and his flesh" = Job's body
Job 2:5 (DARBY), "[and see]" being Darby's.;NABRE
but put forth thy hand now,
and touch his bone and his flesh,
[and see] if he will not curse thee to thy face!
i.e. you gave me a body
Job 10:11 (DARBY);NABRE
Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh,
and knit me together with bones and sinews
i.e. he has damaged my body
Lamentations 3:4 (YLT);NABRE
He hath worn out my flesh and my skin.
He hath broken my bones.
"I am your bone and your flesh" = I am your closely-related relative
Judges 9:1-2 (DARBY);NABRE
1 And Abimelech son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem
to his mother's brethren, and spoke to them,
and to all the family of the house of his mother's father, saying,
2 Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the citizens of Shechem,
Which is better for you,
that seventy persons, all sons of Jerubbaal, rule over you,
or that one man rule over you?
And remember that I am your bone and your flesh.
all the tribes of Israel saying to David, "we are thy bone and thy flesh" = we are your (distantly-related ) relatives
2 Samuel 5:1 (DARBY);NABRE
Then came all the tribes of Israel to David to Hebron, and spoke, saying,
Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh.
David saying to the elders of Judah, "ye are my bone and my flesh" = you are my brothers, you are my (distantly-related) relatives
2 Samuel 19:12 (DARBY)
11 And king David sent to Zadok and to Abiathar the priests, saying,
Speak to the elders of Judah saying,
Why are ye the last to bring the king back to his house?
seeing the speech of all Israel is come to the king, to his house.
12 Ye are my brethren,
ye are my bone and my flesh;
and why will ye be the last to bring back the king?
From the NT:
"flesh and blood has not revealed" this to you = you didn't learn this from a human
Matthew 16:17 (DARBY), with the bracket being DARBY's;NABRE
And Jesus answering said to him,
Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona,
for flesh and blood has not revealed [it] to thee,
but my Father who is in the heavens.
"a spirit hath not flesh and bones" = a spirit lacks a body
Luke 24:39 (YLT);NABRE
see my hands and my feet, that I am he;
handle me and see,
because a spirit hath not flesh and bones,
as ye see me having.'
"of his flesh, and of his bones" = of his body
Ephesians 5:30 (YLT)
29 for no one ever his own flesh did hate,
but doth nourish and cherish it,
as also the Lord -- the assembly,
30 because members we are of his body,
of his flesh, and of his bones;
31 'for this cause shall a man leave his father and mother,
and shall be joined to his wife,
and they shall be -- the two -- for one flesh;
"wrestling with blood and flesh" = wrestling with human bodies/ humans/ people
Ephesians 6:12 (YLT);NABRE
because we have not the wrestling with blood and flesh,
but with the principalities, with the authorities, with the world-rulers of the darkness of this age,
with the spiritual things of the evil in the heavenly places;
"flesh and blood cannot inherit God's kingdom" = ?.  
human bodies can't dwell in heaven? 
sinful humans can't make it into heaven?
1 Corinthians 15:50 (DARBY);NABRE
But this I say, brethren, that
flesh and blood cannot inherit God's kingdom,
nor does corruption inherit incorruptibility.
"counsel with flesh and blood" = consult humans/ people
Galatians 1:16 (DARBY), with the brackets being Darby's;NABRE
15 But when God,
who set me apart [even] from my mother's womb,
and called [me] by his grace,
16 was pleased to reveal his Son in me,
that I may announce him as glad tidings among the nations,
immediately I took not counsel with flesh and blood,
17 nor went I up to Jerusalem to those [who were] apostles before me;
but I went to Arabia,
and again returned to Damascus.
18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem
to make acquaintance with Peter,
and I remained with him fifteen days;
19 but I saw none other of the apostles,
but James the brother of the Lord.
"partake of blood and flesh" = take on a human body
Hebrews 2:14 (DARBY);NABRE
Since therefore the children partake of blood and flesh,
he also, in like manner, took part in the same,
that through death he might annul
him who has the might of death,
that is, the devil;
I'm unsure what to make of Yeshua's remarks in John 6 about consuming his flesh and blood.  Perhaps they're related to the above quotes.  Does the Church of the East take a position on what John 6 speaks about?
John 6 (based on Younan)
53.  And Yeshua said to them,
"Amain, amain I say to you that,
unless you eat the body of the Barh-d'Ansha [of-man his-son, i.e. the Son of Man] and drink his blood,
you have no life in yourselves.[re: 'yourselves': qnuma, translated here as 'self,' literally means 'underlying substance']
54.  And he who eats from my body
and drinks from my blood
has khia-d'l'ailm [life of-to-the world/age, i.e. the world/age of life],
and I will raise him up on the last day.
55.  For certainly my body is food,
and certainly my blood is drink;
56.  he who eats my body and drinks my blood
abides in me and I in him.
57.  As the Living Abba [Father] has sent me,
and I live because of Abba,
and whoever eats of me,
he also will live because of me.
58.  This is the Lkhma [Bread] that has descended from Heaven.
It is not as manna your forefathers ate and died;
he who eats this Lkhma will live forever."
Transliterations of Semitic Words (Often Without Added Glosses)
"Bar-", "Beth-", various additional transliterations
The Bottom Line
The Greek translation of the Aramaic Peshitta NT has numerous transliterations of the original Aramaic. 
Certain transliterations constitute evidence that Jesus and the people around him spoke Aramaic.
Certain transliterations in Pauline epistles constitute evidence that Paul wrote in Aramaic to Aramaic-reading groups; I'm thinking particularly of Kephas and "Maran atha."
Certain transliterated words for which Greek writers probably already had suitable equivalents provide evidence that certain NT books were originally written in Aramaic; I'm thinking particularly of kuminon (cumin), libanos (frankincense), Sabbaton (Saturday), sikera (an alcoholic beverage), and zizanion (a noxious weed that could be confused with wheat).
The retention of "bar-" in the Greek mss. in certain individuals' names provides evidence that at the time of Jesus, parents were naming their children with Aramaic names, and hence, were probably speaking Aramaic.
Tilton, Joshua N. and David N. Bivin.  "Greek Transliterations of Hebrew, Aramaic and Hebrew/Aramaic Words in the Synoptic Gospels"
The original is at
Tilton & Bivin observe that in the Greek NT, there are a "number of foreign words that were transliterated into Greek from either Hebrew or Aramaic (it is often impossible to distinguish Hebrew from Aramaic in Greek transliteration). Since modern translations of the Bible tend to hide these transliterated words, most readers are not aware of how many transliterated words there are in the Synoptic Gospels."
The Greek NT has approximately 138,000 words.
More than 500 of the words are transliterations of Semitic-- usually Aramaic-- words..
In the Hebrew OT, "ben-" means "son of." 
In the Aramaic portions of the OT, "bar-" means "son of.
"Bar-" appears at Daniel 3:25, 5:22, 5:31, 7:13, Ezra 5:1, 5:2 (twice), and Ezra 6:14.
Daniel 7:13 has "kbr ansh."
When the Aramaic Peshitta NT was translated into Greek, people's names were transliterated (often without an accompanying translation).  Here are some instances of Aramaic names containing "bar-":
Barabbas = "son of a father or master"
the captive robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of Christ
Barjesus = "son of Jesus"
a certain false prophet
Barjona = "son of Jonah" [i.e. son of a Dove]
the surname of the apostle Peter
Barnabas = "son of rest" [I'd say son of comfort/ consolation/ encouragement]
the surname of Joses or Joseph, a Levite, a native of Cyprus…. a distinguished Christian teacher and companion and colleague of Paul.
Bartholomew = "son of Tolmai"
one of the twelve apostles of Christ
Barsabas = "son of Sabas"
1.  the surname of a certain Joseph (Acts 1:23)
2.  the surname of a certain Judas (Acts 15:22)
Bartimaeus = "son of Timaeus"
a certain blind man
The retention of "beth-" in the Greek mss. in certain places' names provides evidence that at the time of Jesus, people were calling locations by either Aramaic or Hebrew names, and hence, were probably speaking Aramaic or Hebrew.
In the Hebrew OT and the Aramaic NT, "beth-" means "house/place of."  When the Aramaic Peshitta NT was translated into Greek, place names were transliterated (often without an accompanying translation).  Here are some instances of places containing "beth-":
"Bethabara"  appeared out of a mistranslation or mistransmission.  In the translation from Aramaic into Greek of John 1:28, or in the later recopying of that passage, some things got jumbled in that some Greek manuscripts erroneously have 'Beth-Abara' instead of Beth-Aniya.  Beth-Bara was an OT place meaning 'House/Place of a Crossing/Ferry.'  See also
Bethany = "house of dates" or, "house of misery"
1.  a village at the Mount of Olives, about two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, on or near the normal road to Jericho
2.  a town or village on the east bank of the Jordan, where John was baptising
Bethesda = "house of mercy" or "flowing water"
the name of a pool near the sheep-gate at Jerusalem, whose waters had curative powers
Bethphage = "house of unripe figs"
the name of a hamlet between Jericho and Jerusalem, close to Bethany
Bethlehem = "house of bread"
a village about six miles (10 km) south of Jerusalem
Bethsaida = "house of fish"
1.  a small fishing village on the west shore of Lake Gennesaret, home of Andrew, Peter, Philip and John
2.  a village in lower Gaulanitis on the eastern shore of Lake Gennesaret, not far from where the Jordan empties into it
Various Additional Transliterations of Semitic Words
Gloss:  Aramaic for father
Definition:  father
In Greek translations, it appears at Mk 14:36; Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6-- see the above URL.
Aceldama = "Field of Blood"
a field purchased with Judas's betrayal money, located near Jerusalem
It appears here:
Acts 1:19 (DARBY);DARBY
And it was known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
so that that field was called in their own dialect [Greek:  dialektos] Aceldama;
that is,
field of blood [Greek:  chorion haima].
This passage demonstrates that at the time of Jesus' crucifixion, the "inhabitants of Jerusalem" spoke Aramaic.
The Greek manuscripts' transliteration and translation are markedly different, and in the Aramaic, similarly different in appearance are the first Aramaic phrase and the second Aramaic phrase.
Acts 1:19 (based on Younan)
and this became known to all who lived in Urishlim,
and thus that field was called in the tongue of the area, Khaqel-d'Ma,
that is thurgmh [interpreted], Qurith Dm [Field-of Blood]--
praise ye the Lord, Hallelujah
It appears at Rev 19:1, 19:3-4, 19:6-- see
1.  firm
metaph. faithful
2.  verily, amen
-- at the beginning of a discourse -- surely, truly, of a truth
-- at the end -- so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled. 
It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues to the Christian assemblies, that when he who had read or discoursed, had offered up solemn prayer to God, the others responded Amen, and thus made the substance of what was uttered their own.
The word "amen" is a most remarkable word.  It was transliterated directly from the Hebrew into the Greek of the New Testament, then into Latin and into English and many other languages, so that it is practically a universal word.  It has been called the best known word in human speech.  The word is directly related -- in fact, almost identical -- to the Hebrew word for "believe" (amam), or faithful.  Thus, it came to mean "sure" or "truly", an expression of absolute trust and confidence.  -- HMM
"Amen" appears over 125 times in the Greek translation of the Aramaic NT.  See
Beelzebub = "lord of the house" [I'd say:  lord of the:  dung?  flies?]
a name of Satan, the prince of evil spirits
It appears at Mt 10:25, 12:24, 12:27; Mk 3:22; Lk 11:15, 11:18, 11:19-- see
Looking at the original Aramaic, we see this:
Mark 3:17 (based on Younan)
and Yaqub the son of Zawdee and Yukhanan the brother of Yaqub, to them he gave the name Bnay-Raghshee [Sons of:  Rage, or Tumult, or Thunder, or Feeling-- per Bauscher], that is, Bnay-Raima [Sons of Thunder].
The Greek translation of the original Aramaic transliterated the first Aramaic phrase, and translated the second Aramaic phrase:
Mark 3:17 (DARBY);DARBY
and James the [son] of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, and he gave them the surname of Boanerges [Greek:  Boanerges], that is, Sons of thunder [Greek for "Sons of thunder":  hyios bronte];
As noted by
the word origin for Boanerges is Aramaic.
ephphatha!, be opened!
Aramaic, be thou opened, Mk. 7:34
Greek mss. have a transliteration in Mk 7:34, followed by the addition of a gloss:
Mk 7:34 (KJV);DARBY
And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him,
that is,
Be opened [Greek:  dianoigo].
Note the stark dissimilarity of the transliteration and the translation.
Here is my transliteration of the original Aramaic, with the translation in brackets:
Mk 7:34-35 (based on Younan)
34. And he looked into heaven and sighed and said to him,
"Aetpatak!"[be opened]
35. And at that moment, his ears were opened….
Gabbatha = "elevated or a platform"
a raised place, elevation
In the Greek was called Lithostrotos, or the pavement of stones, as the Syrian [i.e. Aramaic] version renders it: it is thought to be the room Gazith, in which the sanhedrin sat in the temple when they tried capital causes; and it was so called, because it was paved with smooth, square hewn stones: "it was in the north part; half of it was holy, and half of it was common: and it had two doors, one for that part which was holy, and another for that part that was common; and in that half that was common the sanhedrin sat." So that into this part of it, and by this door, Pilate, though a Gentile, might enter. This place, in the language of the Jews, who at that time spoke Syrian [i.e. Aramaic], was Gabbatha, from its height, as it should seem; though the Syrian and Persian versions read Gaphiphtha, which signifies a fence or enclosure. Mention is made in the Talmud of the upper Gab in the mountain of the house; but whether the same with this Gabbatha, and whether this is the same with the chamber Gazith, is not certain. The Septuagint uses the same word as John here does, and calls by the same name the pavement of the temple on which Israelites fell and worshipped God.
It appears at Jn 19:13.
Hell is the place of the future punishment call "Gehenna" or "Gehenna of fire".  This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their future destruction.
It appears at
Mt 5:22, 5:29, 5:30, 10:28, 18:9, 23:15, 23:33; Mk 9:43, 9:45, 9:47; Lk 12:5; James 3:6-- see
Golgotha = "skull"
the name of a place outside Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified; so called, apparently because its form resembled a skull
It appears at
Mt 27:33; Mk 15:22; Jn 19:17-- see
Hosanna! (exclamation of praise, originally Save [us]!)
Hosanna!  save now, help now, Mt. 21:9, 15; Mk. 11:9, 10; Jn. 12:13
Kananites [some Greek mss. instead have Kananaios]
Canaanite = "zealous"
the surname of apostle Simon, otherwise known as "Simon Zelotes"
From another website:
Zealot, Cananaean (not related to geographical terms Cana or Canaan); same as {2421}, zealot}
a Canaanite, Mt. 10:4; Mk. 3:18
Paul wrote 1 Corinthians and Galatians in Aramaic, using the Aramaic term Kapa (meaning "Rock") to refer to Peter.  When 1 Corinthians was translated into Greek, that Aramaic word was transliterated as Kephas.
Cephas (Aramaic for Peter), rock
Cephas, Rock, rendered into Greek by Petros
It appears at
Jn 1:42; 1 Cor 1:12, 3:22, 9:5, 15:5; Gal 1:18, 2:9, 11, 14-- see the above URL.
temple treasury, the sacred treasury, Mt. 27:6
a corus or cor, the largest Hebrew dry measure (i.e, for wheat, meal etc.) about 10 to 11 bushels (350 to 400 l)
It appears at Luke 16:7-- see
cummin is a cultivated plant in Palestine with seeds that have a bitter warm taste and an aromatic flavor
It appears at Mt 23:23-- see
1  the frankincense tree
2  the perfume, frankincense
It appears at Mt 2:11, Rev 18:13-- see
1 mammon
2 treasure
3 riches (where it is personified and opposed to God)
It appears at Mt 6:24, Luke 16:9, 16:11, 16:13-- see
manna = "what is it"
1 the food that nourished the Israelites for forty years in the wilderness
2 of the manna was kept in the ark of the covenant
3 symbolically, that which is kept in the heavenly temple for the food of angels and the blessed
It appears at
Jn 6:31, 49; Heb. 9:4; Rev. 2:17-- see
"Maran atha"
our Lord cometh or will come
It appears at 1 Cor 16:22.
A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile.  In addition to OT books the Pharisees recognised in oral tradition a standard of belief and life.  They sought for distinction and praise by outward observance of external rites and by outward forms of piety, and such as ceremonial washings, fastings, prayers, and alms giving; and, comparatively negligent of genuine piety, they prided themselves on their fancied good works.  They held strenuously to a belief in the existence of good and evil angels, and to the expectation of a Messiah; and they cherished the hope that the dead, after a preliminary experience either of reward or of penalty in Hades, would be recalled to life by him, and be requited each according to his individual deeds.  In opposition to the usurped dominion of the Herods and the rule of the Romans, they stoutly upheld the theocracy and their country's cause, and possessed great influence with the common people.  According to Josephus they numbered more than 6000.  They were bitter enemies of Jesus and his cause; and were in turn severely rebuked by him for their avarice, ambition, hollow reliance on outward works, and affection of piety in order to gain popularity.
It appears in over 90 places in the Greek translation, e.g. Mt 5:20-- see
1 the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people's deliverance of old from Egypt)
2 the paschal lamb, i.e. the lamb the Israelites were accustomed to slay and eat on the fourteenth day of the month of Nisan (the first month of their year) in memory of the day on which their fathers, preparing to depart from Egypt, were bidden by God to slay and eat a lamb, and to sprinkle their door posts with its blood, that the destroying angel, seeing the blood, might pass over their dwellings; Christ crucified is likened to the slain paschal lamb
3 the paschal supper
4 the paschal feast, the feast of the Passover, extending from the 14th to the 20th day of the month Nisan
It appears in over 25 places in the Greek translation, e.g. Luke 2:41-- see
1 my great one, my honourable sir
2 Rabbi, a title used by the Jews to address their teachers (and also honour them when not addressing them)
It appears in 15 places in the Greek translation, e.g. Matthew 23:7-- see
1  empty, i.e. a senseless, empty headed man
2  a term of reproach used among the Jews in the time of Chris
I would say the Aramaic "rqa" means "spit," short for "(I) spit (on you)" or "(you are) spit/vile/horrid/foul."  It only appears at Mt 5:22. 
Aramaic to Arabic to Latin to English-- with word-for-word comparison with the Arabic-- produced "O!  horrid one";
Aramaic to Arabic to English produced "Thou foul one"--
see Diatesseron 8:51, translations of J. Hamlyn Hill (1894) and Hope Hogg (1897).
1 master, chief, prince
2 Rabboni is a title of honour Mary used to address Jesus
It appears at Mk 10:51, Jn 20:16.
1  the seventh day of each week which was a sacred festival on which the Israelites were required to abstain from all work
1a  the institution of the sabbath, the law for keeping holy every seventh day of the week
1b  a single sabbath, sabbath day
2  seven days, a week
It appears over 65 times in the Greek translation, e.g. Mt 12:10-- see
1  a keeping sabbath
2  the blessed rest from toils and troubles looked for in the age to come by the true worshippers of God and true Christians
It appears at Heb 4:9-- see
"Lord of Sabaoth"  Lord of the armies of Israel, as those who are under the leadership and protection of Jehovah maintain his cause in war
It appears at Rom 9:29, James 5:4-- see
1  adversary (one who opposes another in purpose or act), the name given to
a  the prince of evil spirits, the inveterate adversary of God and Christ….
b  a Satan-like man
It appears over 35 times in the Greek translation, e.g. Mt 4:10-- see
a kind of dry measure, 3 gallons (14 litres)
It appears at Mt. 13:33; Lk. 13:21-- see
strong drink, an intoxicating beverage, different from wine; it was a artificial product, made of a mixture of sweet ingredients, whether derived from grain and vegetables, or from the juice of fruits (dates), or a decoction of honey
It appears at Lk 1:15-- see
Woe aka Ouai
alas, woe
It appears over 45 times in the Greek translation of the Aramaic NT, e.g. Mt. 11:21-- see
a kind of darnel, resembling wheat except the grains are black
It appears in 8 places in the Greek translation, at Mt 13:25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 36, 38, 40-- see
Mark 15:34
Working with the original Aramaic, note the close similarity of the 2 transliterations of the 2 different Aramaic dialects:
Mark 15:34 (based on Younan)
And in the ninth hour, Yeshua cried out in a loud voice and said,
"'Ail!  Ail!  Lamna shwaqthani?'",
that is,
"'Allahi!  Allahi!  Lamna shwaqthani?'"
[My Allaha!  My Allaha!  Why have you spared me?/ Why have you let me live?  Cf. Ps 22:1, which Lamsa translates the Peshitta OT as having, "My Allaha, my Allaha, why hast thou let me to live?"]
In the Greek translation of the original Aramaic for that passage, the second Aramaic dialect line was transliterated and then translated:
Mark 15:34 (HCSB);DARBY
with Greek words from;DARBY
And at three Jesus cried out with a loud voice,
"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"
which is translated,
"My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"[Greek:
ho ego Theos, ho ego Theos, eis tis enkataleipo ego]
Note the stark dissimilarity of Greek manuscripts' transliteration of the original Aramaic, compared with the Greek manuscripts' translation.

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