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"Master YHWH" and "I AM"s in the Peshitta
#31
Part 4

John 5:16 (HCSB)
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Therefore, the Jews began persecuting Jesus[a: Other mss add _and trying to kill Him_] because He was doing these things on the Sabbath.

The phrase about "trying to kill" Jesus was had as of A.D. 175, and is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 22:24-25
And because of that the Jews persecuted Jesus and sought to kill him, because he was doing this on the sabbath.
John 5:16 (Younan)
And because of this, the Yehudeans were persecuting Yeshua and were seeking to kill him, because he would do these things on the Shabbata.

================================.
John 6:22 (HCSB)
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The next day, the crowd that had stayed on the other side of the sea knew there had been only one boat.[a: Other mss add
_into which His disciples had entered_]
They also knew that Jesus had not boarded the boat with His disciples?.

The phrase about a boat "into which His disciples had entered" was had as of A.D. 175, and is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 19:16-17
And on the day after that, the multitude which was standing on the shore of the sea saw that there was there no other ship
save that into which the disciples had gone up,
and that Jesus went not up into the ship with his disciples?.
John 6:22 (Younan)
And on the following day that crowd, which was standing on the other side of the sea, saw that not (any) other boat was there
except it which the talmida [students] had gone up into,
and that Yeshua had not entered with them-- with his talmida-- into the boat.

================================.
John 6:36
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But as I told you,
you've seen Me,[a: Other mss omit _Me_]
and yet you do not believe.

The word "Me" was had as of A.D. 175, and is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 19:30-31
But I said unto you,
Ye have seen me,
and have not believed.
John 6:36 (Younan)
But I have said to you that
you have seen me,
and you do not believe.

================================.
John 6:47 (HCSB)
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"I assure you:
Anyone who believes[a: Other mss add _in Me_] has eternal life.

The "in Me" phrase was had as of A.D. 175, and is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 41-42
Verily, verily, I say unto you,
Whosoever believeth in me hath eternal life.
John 6:47 (Younan)
Amain, amain I say to you that,
whoever believes in me has life that is eternal.

================================.
John 6:58 (HCSB)
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This is the bread that came down from heaven;
it is not like the manna[a: Other mss omit _the manna_] your fathers ate?and they died.
The one who eats this bread will live forever."

The mention of manna was had as of A.D. 175, and is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 19:52-53
This is the bread which came down from heaven:
and not according as your fathers ate the manna, and died:
whosoever eateth of this bread shall live forever.
John 6:58 (Younan)
This is the Bread that has descended from Heaven.
It is not as manna your forefathers ate and died;
he who eats this Bread will live forever."

================================.
John 6:64 (HCSB)
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(For Jesus knew from the beginning those who would not[a: Other mss omit _not_] believe and the one who would betray Him.)

The "not" was had as of A.D. 175, and is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 20:4-5
And Jesus knew beforehand
who they were who should not believe,
and who it was that should betray him.
John 6:64 (Younan)
For Yeshua had known from the start
who those are that did not believe,
and who he was who would betray him.

================================.
John 6:69 (HCSB)
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We have come to believe and know that
You are the Holy One of God!"[a: Other mss read
_You are the Messiah, the Son of the Living God_]

The verse had "you are the Messiah, the Son of the Living God" as of A.D. 175, and this is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 20:9-10
And we have believed and known that
thou art the Messiah, the Son of the living God.
John 6:69
And we believe and know that
you are the Meshikha, the Son of the living Allaha!"

================================.
John 6:71 (HCSB)
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He was referring to Judas, Simon Iscariot?s son,[a: Other mss read
_Judas Iscariot, Simon?s son_]
one of the Twelve, because he was going to betray Him.

The verse had "Judas the son of Simon Iscariot" as of A.D. 175, and this is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 20:11
He said that because of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot;
for he, being of the twelve, was purposed to betray him.
John 6:71
Now he was speaking concerning Yehuda the son of Shimon Skaryota,
for he was about to betray him, being one from the twelve.

================================.
John 7:37 (HCSB)
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On the last and most important day of the festival, Jesus stood up and cried out,
"If anyone is thirsty,
he should come to Me[a: Other mss omit _to Me_] and drink!

The verse had "to Me" as of A.D. 175, and this is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 35:1-2
And on the great day, which is the last of the feast, Jesus stood, crying out and saying,
If any man is thirsty,
let him come unto me, and drink.
John 7:37 (Younan)
Now on the great day, which is the last (day) of the feast, Yeshua was standing and he cried out and said,
"If a man thirsts,
let him come to me and drink!

================================.
John 7:39 (HCSB)
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He said this about the Spirit.
Those who believed in Jesus were going to receive the Spirit,
for the Spirit[a: Other mss read _Holy Spirit_] had not yet been received[b: Other mss read _had not yet been given_]
because Jesus had not yet been glorified.

The verse had only 2 mentions of merely "Spirit," and said the Spirit "had not yet been given," as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 35:3-4
He said that referring to the Spirit,
which those who believed in him were to receive:
for the Spirit was not yet granted;
and because Jesus had not yet been glorified.
John 7:39 (Younan)
And he said this concerning the Rukha that they-- those who believe in him-- were about to receive.
For the Rukha was not yet given,
because Yeshua was not yet glorified.
Reply
#32
John 7:46 (HCSB)
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The police answered, ?No man ever spoke like this!?[a: Other mss read _like this man_]

The verse had 2 mentions of "man" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 35:10-11
The officers said, Never spake man thus as speaketh this man.
John 7:46 (Younan)
The guards said to them, "Not ever has a man spoken thus as this man speaks!"

====================.
John 8:38 (HCSB)
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I speak what I have seen in the presence of the Father;[a:
Other mss read _of My Father_]
therefore, you do what you have heard from your father.?

The verse had "my Father" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 35:49
And what I saw with my Father,
I say:
and what ye saw with your father,
ye do.
John 8:38 (Younan)
What I have seen,
I speak to Abbi [my Father],
and whatever you have seen,
you do (speak) with your father.

===================.
John 8:57 (HCSB)
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The Jews replied, "You aren't 50 years old yet, and You've seen Abraham?"[a: Other mss read _and Abraham has seen You_?]

As of A.D. 175, the verse had Jesus seeing Abraham, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 36:7-8
The Jews said unto him, Thou art now not fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
John 8:57 (Younan)
The Yehudeans said to him, "You are not yet fifty years old, yet you have seen Awraham?!"

=========================.
John 8:59 (HCSB)
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At that, they picked up stones to throw at Him. But Jesus was hidden and went out of the temple complex.[b: Other mss add _and having gone through their midst, He passed by_]

As of A.D. 175, the verse had Jesus going through a crowd and leaving, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 36:8-9
And they take stones to stone him: but Jesus concealed himself, and went out of the temple. And he passed through them, and went his way.
John 8:59 (Younan)
And they took up rocks to stone him, and Yeshua hid and departed from the temple and passed through their midst and left.

========================.
John 9:4 (HCSB)
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We[a: Other mss read _I_] must do the works of Him who sent Me[b: Other mss read _sent us_] while it is day.
Night is coming when no one can work.

Phrasing different than "we" and "us" was in the verse as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 36:13-14
It is incumbent on me to do the deeds of him that sent me,
while it is day:
a night will come,
and no man will be able to busy himself.
John 9:4 (Younan)
It is necessary for me to do the works of Him who sent me
while it is daytime.
The night (is) coming that
man is not able to work.[The Semitic root PLKH can mean 'work', 'service' or 'worship.'-- PY]

======================.
John 9:35 (HCSB)
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When Jesus heard that they had thrown the man out, He found him and asked,
"Do you believe in the Son of Man?"[a:
Other mss read _the Son of God_]

The verse had "Son of God" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 36:44-45
And Jesus heard of his being put forth without, and found him, and said unto him,
Dost thou believe in the Son of God?
John 9:35 (Younan)
And Yeshua heard that they had cast him outside, and he found him and said to him,
"Do you believe in the Son of Allaha?"

=======================.
John 10:8 (HCSB)
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All who came before Me[a: Other mss omit _before Me_] are thieves and robbers,
but the sheep didn't listen to them.

Tatian didn't include "before Me," which strongly but not conclusively suggests that the phrase was absent in the original rendering of that verse-- who knows, perhaps it was present but for whatever reason he didn't include it in his consolidation of the 4 Gospels.

Diatesseron 37:10-11
And all that came are thieves and stealers:
but the sheep heard them not.

The original Aramaic of the Peshitta lacks the "before Me":

John 10:8 (Younan)
And all those who have come are thieves and robbers
if the flocks have not heard them.[is that flock plural?]

======================.
John 10:26 (HCSB)
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But you don?t believe because you are not My sheep.[a:
Other mss add _just as I told you_]

The verse had "just as I told you" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 37:30-31
But ye believe not,
because ye are not of my sheep,
as I said unto you.
John 10:26 (Younan)
But you do not believe
because you are not of my sheep,
just as I have told you.

======================.
John 10:34 (HCSB)
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Jesus answered them,
"Isn't it written in your scripture,[a:
Other mss read _in the scripture_]
I said, you are gods?

The verse had "your law" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 37:37
Jesus said unto them,
Is it not thus written in your law,
I said, Ye are gods?
John 10:34 (Younan)
Yeshua said to them,
"Is it not thus written in your law that,
'I have told you that you (are) gods'?

==========================.
John 10:38 (HCSB)
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But if I am doing them and you don't believe Me,
believe the works.
This way you will know and understand[a:
Other mss read _know and believe_] that
the Father is in Me
and I in the Father."

The verse had "know and believe" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 37:41
But if I do,
even if ye believe not me,
believe the deeds:
that ye may know and believe that
my Father is in me,
and I in my Father.

John 10:38 (Younan)
If however I do (them),
even if you do not believe me,
believe the works
that you may know and believe that
Abbi [my Father] (is) in me
and I (am) in Abbi."
Reply
#33
John 11:49-50 (HCSB)
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"You know nothing at all!
You're not considering that it is to your[a: Other mss read _to our_] advantage that one man should die for the people rather than the whole nation perish."

As of A.D. 175, Caiaphas included himself in talking about what was advantageous, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 38:34
Ye know not anything,
nor consider that it is more advantageous for us that
one man should die instead of the people,
and not that the whole people perish.
John 11:49-50 (Younan)
"You do not know anything,
and you do not realize that
it is better for us that
one man should die for the sake of the nation,
than that all the nation should perish."

=========================.
John 12:1 (HCSB)
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Six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany where Lazarus[a: Other mss read _Lazarus who died_] was, the one Jesus had raised from the dead.

For this passage, the Diatesseron has only 1 mention of Lazarus' death:

Diatesseron 39:4
?.and they came, not because of Jesus alone, but that they might look also on Lazarus, whom he raised from among the dead.

According to the original Aramaic of the Peshitta, the verse has only one mention of Lazarus dying:

John 12:1 (Younan)
Now before the six days of Petskha, Yeshua came to Beth-Aniya where Lazar was, he whom Yeshua had raised from the grave.

==========================.
John 12:28 (HCSB)
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Father, glorify Your name!"[a: Other mss read _Your Son_]

As of A.D. 175, the passage had "Your name," and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 40:12-13
Now is my soul troubled:
and what shall I say?
My Father, deliver me from this hour.
But for this cause came I unto this hour.
My Father, glorify thy name.

John 12:27-28 (Younan)
Now behold my soul is disturbed,
and what will I say?--
'Abbi [my Father], deliver me from this hour'?
Rather, because of this I have come for this hour!
Abba [Father], glorify your name."

===============================.
John 13:18 (HCSB)
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The one who eats My bread[a:
Other mss read _eats bread with Me_]
has raised his heel against Me.

As of A.D. 175, the passage had "eats bread with Me," and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 44:28
He that eateth with me bread
lifted against me his heel.
John 13:18 (Younan)
'He who eats bread with me
has lifted his heel against me.'["lifted?.": idiom for 'has become my enemy']

========================.
John 13:26 (HCSB)
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When He had dipped the bread, He gave it to Judas, Simon Iscariot's son.[a: Other mss read _Judas Iscariot, Simon's son_]

As of A.D. 175, the passage had "Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot," and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 45:4
And Jesus dipped bread, and gave to Judas,
the son of Simon Iscariot.
John 13:26 (Younan)
And Yeshua dipped the bread and gave (it) to Yehuda,
the son of Shimon Skaryota.

==========================.
John 13:32 (HCSB)
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If God is glorified in Him,[a: Other mss omit _If God is glorified in Him_]
God will also glorify Him in Himself
and will glorify Him at once.

As of A.D. 175, the passage had "If God is glorified in him," and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 45:11
and if God is glorified in him,
God also will glorify him in him,
and straightway will glorify him.

John 13:32 (Younan)
And if Allaha is glorified in him,
Allaha will also glorify him in Himself,
and will immediately glorify him.

==========================.
John 14:7 (HCSB)
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"If you know Me,
you will also know[a: Other mss read
_If you had known Me, you would have known_] My Father.
From now on you do know Him
and have seen Him.?

As of A.D. 175, the passage had "if you had known Me, you would have known my Father," and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 45:35
And if ye had known me,
ye should have known my Father:
and from henceforth ye know him,
and have seen him.

John 14:7 (Younan)
If only you would have known me,
you would have also known Abbi.
And from now (on) you know Him
and you have seen Him."

======================.
John 14:11 (HCSB)
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Believe Me that I am in the Father
and the Father is in Me.
Otherwise, believe[a: Other mss read _believe Me_] because of the works themselves.

For this passage, Tatian didn't include "believe me" at all, which strongly but not conclusively suggests that the phrase wasn't present at all in the original rendering of that verse-- not everything present to him he included in his consolidation of the 4 Gospels.

Diatesseron 45:39
Believe that I am in my Father,
and my Father in me:
or else believe for the sake of the deeds.

The phrase "believe me" isn't present in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

John 14:11 (Younan)
Believe that I (am) in Abbi
and Abbi (is) in me;
otherwise believe even because of the works.

=====================.
John 14:15 (HCSB)
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"If you love Me,
you will keep[a: Other mss read
_If you love Me, keep (as a command)] My commands.

The "you will" is absent from the Diatesseron. This strongly but not conclusively suggests that the phrase was absent in the original rendering of that verse-- not everything present to Tatian he included in his consolidation of the 4 Gospels.

Diatesseron 45:43
If ye love me,
keep my commandments.

The phrase "you will" isn't present in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

John 14:15 (Younan)
If you love me,
keep my commandments.

======================.
John 16:4 (HCSB)
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But I have told you these things so that
when their time[a: Other mss read _when the time_] comes
you may remember I told them to you.

A possessive pronoun preceded the word "time" as of A.D. 175, and this situation is in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta:

Diatesseron 46:47
I have said that unto you, so that
when its time is come,
ye may remember it,
that I told you.

John 16:4 (Younan)
I have spoken these things with you that
when their time comes,
you might know them
that I have told you.
Reply
#34
John 7:53-8:11, John 21:15-17, etc.

Tatian didn't include the account of the woman caught in adultery, which strongly but not conclusively suggests that it was absent in the original rendering of the book of John-- Tatian included 96% but not 100% of John in his consolidation of the 4 Gospels.

More decisively, John 7:53-8:11 also isn't in the original Aramaic of the Peshitta, so it doesn't belong in John.

======================.
John 21:15-17

For this passage, the HCSB opens with:

<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John%2021%3A15-17&version=ESV;HCSB;MOUNCE;DLNT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... OUNCE;DLNT</a><!-- m -->
When they had eaten breakfast, Jesus asked Simon Peter,
"Simon, son of John,[a: Other mss read _Simon, son of Jonah_; Mt 16:17; Jn 1:42]
do you love Me more than these?"

As of A.D. 175, the passage had "Simon, son of Jonah," as seen below.

In this post-resurrection scene, Greek manuscripts have Jesus saying to Peter,
"Tend for me my
arnion [lambs]?.
probaton [adult sheep/ goats]?.
probaton"-- only two different words. See page 106 of the PDF file
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://ia802503.us.archive.org/18/items/WastheNewTestamentReallyWritteninGreek1e/WastheNewTestamentReallyWritteninGreek1e.pdf">http://ia802503.us.archive.org/18/items ... reek1e.pdf</a><!-- m -->
which is linked to from
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://freelibs.org/peshitta/">https://freelibs.org/peshitta/</a><!-- m -->

In contrast, as of A.D. 175, the passage had Jesus saying to Peter,
"Tend for me my lambs?. rams?. ewes"-- three different words:

Diatesseron 54:39-41
And when they had breakfasted, Jesus said to Simon Cephas,
Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me more than these?
He said unto him, Yea, my Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus said unto him,
Feed for me my lambs.
He said unto him again a second time,
Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me?
He said unto him, Yea, my Lord; thou knowest that I love thee.
He said unto him,
Feed for me my sheep [Lit. _rams_].
He said unto him again the third time,
Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me?
And it grieved Cephas that he said unto him three times, Lovest thou me?
He said unto him, My Lord, thou knowest everything; thou knowest that I love thee.
Jesus said unto him, Feed for me my sheep [Lit. _ewes_].

Similarly, the original Aramaic of the Peshitta has Jesus saying to Peter,
"Tend for me
amri [my lambs/ young sheep]?.
airbi [my rams/ adult male sheep]?.
nequthi [my ewes/ adult female sheep]"--
again, three different words:

John 21:15-17 (Younan)
Now after they had dined, Yeshua said to Shimon Keepa,
"Shimon bar-Yonah [Simon son of Jonah],
do you love me more than these?"
He said to him, "Yes, Mari [my Lord]. You know that I love you." He said to him,
"Tend for me amri [my lambs/ young sheep]."
16. He said again to him the second time,
"Shimon bar-Yonah,
do you love me?"
He said to him, "Yes, Mari. You know that I love you."
Yeshua said to him,
"Tend for me airbi [my rams/ adult male sheep]."
17. He said to him the third time,
"Shimon bar-Yonah,
do you love me?"
And Keepa [Peter] was sad that he said the third time to him that, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "Mari, you understand everything. You know that I love you!" Yeshua said to him,
"Tend for me nequthi [my ewes/ adult female sheep].

Incidentally, in the original Aramaic, the word used for "love," rkhm, is identical throughout the conversation for both Peter and Jesus.
In contrast, Greek translations have Jesus saying
"agape?. agape?. phileo,"
and have Peter implausibly responding with
"phileo?. phileo?. phileo."

=====================.
John 16:16 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=john+16%3A16&version=NIV;HCSB;MOUNCE;YLT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... MOUNCE;YLT</a><!-- m -->
A little while and you will no longer see Me;
again a little while and you will see Me. [a: Other mss add
_because I am going to the Father_]

As of A.D. 175, the verse had "because I go to the Father":

Diatesseron 47:1
A little while, and ye shall not behold me;
and a little while again, and ye shall behold me;
because I go to the Father.

The original Aramaic includes "because I go to the Father":

John 16:16 (Younan)
A little while
and you will not see me,
and again a little while
and you will see me,
because I go to Abba."

========================.
John 16:18 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=john+16%3A18&version=NIV;HCSB;MOUNCE;YLT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... MOUNCE;YLT</a><!-- m -->
They said, "What is this He is saying,[a: Other mss omit _He is saying_] 'A little while'? We don't know what He's talking about!"

The text "He is saying" was present as of A.D. 175, here as "that he hath said":

Diatesseron 47:3
And they said, What is this little while that he hath said? We know not what he speaketh.

The original Aramaic of the Peshitta has "that he said":

John 16:18 (Younan)
And they were saying, "What is this 'a little while' that he said? We do not understand what he says!"

=====================.
John 16:27 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=john+16%3A27&version=NIV;HCSB;MOUNCE;YLT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... MOUNCE;YLT</a><!-- m -->
For the Father Himself loves you,
because you have loved Me
and have believed that I came from God.[Other mss read
_from the Father_]

The passage concluded with "Father" as of A.D. 175:

Diatesseron 47:12
for the Father loveth you,
because ye have loved me,
and have believed that
I came forth from my Father.

The word "Father" concludes the passage in the original Aramaic:

John 16:27 (Younan)
For He, Abba, loves you
because you have loved me
and you have believed that
I have proceeded from the presence of Abba.

I don't know the reason the Diatesseron has "my Father" while the original Aramaic has "the Father." Perhaps things got a little muddled in the transition from Aramaic to Arabic to English, or maybe Tatian put down "my Father" instead of the original "the Father."

===========================.
John 17:21 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=john+17%3A21&version=NIV;HCSB;MOUNCE;YLT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... MOUNCE;YLT</a><!-- m -->
May they also be one[a: Other mss omit _one_] in Us,
so the world may believe You sent Me.

The passage had "one" as of A.D. 175:

Diatesseron 47:39
and so they also shall be one in us:
that the world may believe that thou didst send me.

The word "one" is present in the original Aramaic:

John 17:21 (Younan)
that they also may be one in us,
that the ailma [world] may believe that you have sent me.

========================.
John 19:16 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+19%3A14-18&version=ESV;HCSB;MOUNCE;DLNT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... OUNCE;DLNT</a><!-- m -->
Therefore they took Jesus away.[a: Other mss add _and led Him out_]

The Diatesseron is silent on this, coming closest with 51:15, "And the Jews took Jesus, and went away to crucify him."

The original Aramaic has both "they took Jesus" and "and led him":

John 19:16 (Younan)
And they took Yeshua and led him out?.
Reply
#35
John 1:18, 5:2, 5:44, 10:29, 20:31

The key word in John 1:18 is "Ekhediya," which means "only/unique," and when used in a theological sense, is according to Younan, a "beautiful theological term employed by many Eastern theologians and poets. It literally means 'THE ONE.'" We'll start by taking a look at some other verses that use the word in a non-theological sense.

Luke 7:12 (Younan)
And when he [Yeshua] approached the gate of the medintha [city] he saw a dead man while being escorted d'ekhediya [who the only (son)] was of his mother, and she his mother was a widow.

Luke 8:41-42
And a certain man whose name was Yorash, a chief of the assembly, fell before the feet of Yeshua and was beseeching him that he might enter his house, for he had ekheditha [an only] daughter about twelve years old, and she was about to die.

Luke 9:38
And a certain man from the crowd cried out and he said, "Malpana [Teacher], I beseech you, take notice of me! He is bari [my son] ekhediya [only] to me, and a rukha [spirit] seizes him and suddenly he cries out and gnashes his teeth?.

The word is also in John 1:14, 1:18, 3:16, 3:18, Hebrews 11:17, and 1 John 4:9. We now look at the controversial verse.

John 1:18 (Younan)
Man has not ever seen Allaha.
The Ekhediya [literally: THE ONE] (of) Allaha,
he who is in the bosom of his Father,
he has declared Him.

Ehrman, 161, states that John 1:18 comes "in two variant forms:
'No one has seen God at any time,
but _the unique Son/the unique God_ who is in the bosom of Father,
that one has made him known.'"
Question: Is it the unique/only Son in the bosom of the Father? Is it the unique/only God in the bosom of the Father?

Aramaic to Arabic to English yielded this:

Diatesseron 4:1
No man hath seen God at any time;
the only Son, God, which is in the bosom of his Father,
he hath told of him.

That rendering has it as 'the unique Son, who is God, is in the bosom of his Father.'

Starting with the original Aramaic of the Peshitta, Younan takes the other approach, and supplies an implied "of" to get:

John 1:18 (Younan)
Man has not ever seen Allaha.
The Ekhediya [literally: THE ONE] (of) Allaha,
he who is in the bosom of his Father,
he has declared Him.

One way to construe the verse is the way the Diatesseron has it, where the Son is called God:
"the only Son, God"
Another way to construe the verse is the way the Younan has it, where an implied "of" is supplied to get:
"Ekhadaya [THE ONE] (of) Allaha"

The word "son" is implied but not actually present in John 1:18, just as Yorash "had ekheditha [an only] daughter," and another father spoke of "bari [my son] ekhediya [only] to me."

The verse is ambiguous, with both the Diatesseron's rendition and Younan's rendition seeming-- to me at least-- acceptable. Ehrman speculates that nefarious scribes re-wrote the text, when in fact, the 2 variations are both plausible translations of the original Aramaic.

=========================.
John 5:2 (NIV)
Now there is in Jerusalem near the Sheep Gate a pool, which in Aramaic is called Bethesda[a: Some manuscripts _Bethzatha_; other manuscripts _Bethsaida_] and which is surrounded by five covered colonnades.

The translator into Arabic did a translation rather than merely a transliteration of Beth-Khisda, so it's of little use in selecting the best transliteration:

Diatesseron 22:10, Hill translation (Aramaic to Arabic to Latin to English, with consultation with the Arabic)
Now there was at Jerusalem a place prepared for bathing, which is called in Hebrew Baitharrahmat [House of Mercy], having five porches.

From the original Aramaic:

John 5:2 (Younan)
Now there was there in Urishlim a certain place of baptism, which is called in Hebrew "Beth-Khisda," and there was in it five porches.

As noted by the NIV, various Greek manuscripts have the phrase transliterated various ways, namely Beth-Zatha, Beth-Esda, and Beth-Saida. The NIV interprets 'Hebrew' as referring to 'Aramaic'; Brown, 206, comments that "'Hebrew' is used loosely, often for names that are Aramaic." Regarding the 'house/place of baptism/bathing,' Greek manuscripts are quite varied: after mentioning the phrase "by the Sheep Pool," Brown, 206 states that "the manuscript evidence is quite confused" before elaborating. How Greek manuscripts came to have "sheep" given the original Aramaic is an interesting question.

=========================.
John 5:44 (NIV)
How can you believe
since you accept glory from one another
but do not seek the glory that comes from the only God[a: Some early manuscripts _the Only One_]?

As of A.D. 175, the verse had "the only God":

Diatesseron 22:52
And how can ye believe,
while ye receive praise one from another,
and praise from God, the One, ye seek not?

The original Aramaic of the Peshitta has "the only God":

John 5:44
How are you able to believe,
you who receive shubkha [praise] from one to another,
and (yet) you do not seek the shubkha that is from the one Allaha?

=======================.
John 10:29 (NIV)
My Father, who has given them to me,
is greater than all[a: Many early manuscripts
_What my Father has given me is greater than all_];
no one can snatch them out of my Father's hand.

As of A.D. 175, the verse described the Father as "greater than all":

Dia 37:33
For the Father, who hath given them unto me, is greater than all;
and no man is able to take them from the hand of my Father.

The original Aramaic of the Peshitta has Jesus saying his Father is greater than all:

John 10:29
For Abbi [my Father] who gave (them) to me is greater than all,
and no man is able to snatch (them) from the hands of Abbi.

=========================.
John 20:31 (NIV)
But these are written that you may [1984 NIV: Some manuscripts _may continue to_] believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God,
and that by believing you may have life in his name.

A "continue to" is absent from the Diatesseron, which strongly suggests that it wasn't present as of A.D. 175, though of course Tatian didn't include 100% of the 4 Gospels when compiling his consolidation:

Diatesseron 54:24
but these that are written also are that ye may believe
in Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God;
and that when ye have believed,
ye may have in his name eternal life.

The original Aramaic of the Peshitta lacks a "continue to":

John 20:31
But indeed, these things are written that you might believe that
Yeshua is the Meshikha, the Son of Allaha,
and when you believe in his name
you might have life that is eternal.
Reply
#36
Peshitta Tool; better translations of Acts 14:17

To look closely at NT words in the original Aramaic, see the Peshitta Tool at
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://www.dukhrana.com/peshitta/">http://www.dukhrana.com/peshitta/</a><!-- m -->
After viewing a verse's Khabouris Peshitta text, clicking "analyze" will reveal its grammar and various definitions of the individual words.

===========================.
Acts 14:17

It doesn't make sense to go about "filling your hearts with food":
Acts 14:17 (DLNT)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=acts+14%3A17&version=KJV;HCSB;MOUNCE;DLNT">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... OUNCE;DLNT</a><!-- m -->
And yet He did not leave Himself without-witness:
doing-good, giving you rains from heaven and fruitful seasons,
filling your hearts with food and gladness".

It does make sense to go about "satisfying your hearts with food and happiness":
Acts 14:17 (HCSB)
although He did not leave Himself without a witness,
since He did what is good by giving you rain from heaven and fruitful seasons
and satisfying your hearts with food and happiness."

It does make sense to have "filled their hearts with cheer and gladness":
Acts 14:17 (Younan, from the original Aramaic)
And He [Allaha] caused rain to descend from heaven for them,
and He caused fruit to grow in their seasons.
And He filled their hearts with cheer and gladness."
Reply
#37
Semitic idioms:
"heart" = mind/thinking.
"bowels."

I'm not aware of any Greek idioms in the New Testament-- are you?
Do you think the phrase "eyes of your heart" meant anything to Greek speakers?

Ephesians 1:18 (MOUNCE)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/Ephesians%201:18">https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/Ephesians%201:18</a><!-- m -->
I pray that eis, with the ho eyes ophthalmos of ho your hymeis heart kardia enlightened photizo?.

Originally in Aramaic, the NT was eventually translated into Greek. The Greek translations retain many Semitic idioms present in the original Aramaic.

In the OT (and NT), the word "heart" often is a Semitic idiomatic reference to the mind/thinking:

KJV
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=heart&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
Genesis 6:5
And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth,
and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
Genesis 8:21
And the Lord smelled a sweet savour;
and the Lord said in his heart,
I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake;
for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth?.
Genesis 17:17
Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart,
Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old?
Genesis 18:5
And I will fetch a morsel of bread,
and comfort ye your hearts;?.

Speaking in Aramaic, Jesus used "heart" in a Semitic idiomatic way:

<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?qs_version=KJV&quicksearch=heart&startnumber=501&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
Matthew 5:8
Blessed are the pure in heart:
for they shall see God.
Matthew 5:28
But I say unto you,
That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her
hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.

The 4 Gospels were originally in Aramaic, and Mark, Luke, and John included use of "heart" in a Semitic idiomatic way, not merely when quoting Semites e.g. Jesus, but also in their narration of events:

Mark 2:6
But there was certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts,
Mark 3:5
And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man?.
Mark 6:52
For they considered not the miracle of the loaves: for their heart was hardened.
Mark 16:14
Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen.

Luke 1:66
And all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be!
Luke 2:19
But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart.
Luke 2:51
And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.
Luke 3:15
And as the people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not;
Luke 9:47
And Jesus, perceiving the thought of their heart, took a child, and set him by him,

John 13:2
And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;

Luke also included use of "heart" in a Semitic idiomatic way in narrative portions of the book of Acts:

Acts 2:37
Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do?
Acts 2:46
And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart,
Acts 4:32
And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul: neither said any of them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common.

Writing in Aramaic, Paul and other NT writers included use of "heart" in a Semitic idiomatic way:

Romans 1:21
Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
Romans 2:5
But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
Romans 2:15
Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts,
their conscience also bearing witness,
and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one anotherWink
Romans 10:6
But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from aboveSmile
Romans 10:9
That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
Romans 10:10
For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.
Romans 16:18
For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

1 Corinthians 4:5
Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come,
who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness,
and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts:
and then shall every man have praise of God.

2 Corinthians 3:15
But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart.
2 Corinthians 9:7
Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.

Galatians 4:6
And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

Ephesians 3:17
That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love,
Ephesians 4:18
Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
Ephesians 5:19
Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;
Ephesians 6:5
Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;

Philippians 1:7
Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart; inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace.

Colossians 2:2
That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgement of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ;
Colossians 3:15
And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful.
Colossians 3:16
Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.
Colossians 3:22
Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God;
Colossians 4:8
Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that he might know your estate, and comfort your hearts;

1 Thessalonians 2:4
But as we were allowed of God to be put in trust with the gospel, even so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, which trieth our hearts.
1 Thessalonians 2:17
But we, brethren, being taken from you for a short time in presence, not in heart, endeavoured the more abundantly to see your face with great desire.
1 Thessalonians 3:13
To the end he may stablish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints.

2 Thessalonians 2:17
Comfort your hearts, and stablish you in every good word and work.
2 Thessalonians 3:5
And the Lord direct your hearts into the love of God, and into the patient waiting for Christ.

1 Timothy 1:5
Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned:

2 Timothy 2:22
Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart.

Hebrews 3:12
Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God.
Hebrews 4:12
For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Hebrews 10:16
This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord,
I will put my laws into their hearts,
and in their minds will I write them;
Hebrews 10:22
Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith,
having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience,
and our bodies washed with pure water.

James 1:26
If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain.
James 3:14
But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth.
James 4:8
Draw nigh to God,
and he will draw nigh to you.
Cleanse your hands, ye sinners;
and purify your hearts, ye double minded.
James 5:8
Be ye also patient;
stablish your hearts:
for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh.

1 Peter 1:22
Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently:

2 Peter 1:19
We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:
2 Peter 2:14
Having eyes full of adultery, and that cannot cease from sin; beguiling unstable souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children:

1 John 3:19
And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him.
1 John 3:20
For if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things.
1 John 3:21
Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence toward God.

Revelation 2:23
And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.
Revelation 17:17
For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.
Revelation 18:7
How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.

=================================.
References to "bowels" in the OT and NT can be Semitic references to:
-- having or expressing intense feelings, often feelings of compassion/mercy or love/affection;
-- references to the mind/thinking:

KJV
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=bowels&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
Genesis 43:30
And Joseph made haste;
for his bowels did yearn upon his brother:
and he sought where to weep;
and he entered into his chamber,
and wept there.

1 Kings 3:26
Then spake the woman whose the living child was unto the king, for her bowels yearned upon her son, and she said,
O my lord, give her the living child,
and in no wise slay it.
But the other said,
Let it be neither mine nor thine,
but divide it.

Song of Solomon 5:4
My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door,
and my bowels were moved for him.

Isaiah 16:11
Wherefore my bowels shall sound like an harp for Moab,
and mine inward parts for Kirharesh.

Isaiah 63:15
Look down from heaven,
and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory:
where is thy zeal and thy strength,
the sounding of thy bowels
and of thy mercies toward me?
are they restrained?

Jeremiah 4:19
My bowels, my bowels!
I am pained at my very heart;
my heart maketh a noise in me;
I cannot hold my peace,
because thou hast heard, O my soul,
the sound of the trumpet,
the alarm of war.
Jeremiah 31:20
Is Ephraim my dear son?
is he a pleasant child?
for since I spake against him,
I do earnestly remember him still:
therefore my bowels are troubled for him;
I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the Lord.

Lamentations 1:20
Behold, O Lord; for I am in distress:
my bowels are troubled;
mine heart is turned within me;
for I have grievously rebelled:
abroad the sword bereaveth,
at home there is as death.

2 Corinthians 6:12
Ye are not straitened in us,
but ye are straitened in your own bowels.
Compare
2 Corinthians 6:12 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2%20Corinthians%206%3A12&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;KJV;NKJV;HCSB">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... ;NKJV;HCSB</a><!-- m -->
You are not limited by us,
but you are limited by your own affections.

Philippians 1:8
For God is my record,
how greatly I long after you all
in the bowels of Jesus Christ.
Philippians 2:1
If there be therefore any consolation in Christ,
if any comfort of love,
if any fellowship of the Spirit,
if any bowels and mercies,

Colossians 3:12
Put on therefore,
as the elect of God,
holy and beloved,
bowels of mercies, kindness,
humbleness of mind, meekness,
longsuffering;

Philemon 1:7
For we have great joy and consolation in thy love,
because the bowels of the saints are refreshed by thee, brother.
Philemon 1:12
Whom I have sent again:
thou therefore receive him,
that is, mine own bowels:
Philemon 1:20
Yea, brother, let me have joy of thee in the Lord:
refresh my bowels in the Lord.

1 John 3:17
But whoso hath this world's good,
and seeth his brother have need,
and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him,
how dwelleth the love of God in him?
Reply
#38
more Semitic idioms:
"son of __________"
"who shall declare his generation?"
"gird up your loins"
"set his face to go to _____________"
"in/before the face of"

In the original Aramaic of the NT, "son of" and "son (of)" appear frequently, often as part of an idiom. To illustrate:
son of its hour: immediately
son of the rooftop: a lunatic
son of the city: a citizen
son of a man: typically means "a man"/ human/ human being
sons of his house: his family members
At least in Arabic, a "son of the road" is a traveler.
From Errico, 11:
bar-zuaga: son of the yoke, i.e. a companion/friend
bar-hila: son of power, i.e. a soldier
bar-yolpana: son of learning, i.e. a student

Most-- but not all-- of those Aramaic idioms were dispensed with in the translation from Aramaic into Greek. Here are some instances where the Aramaic idiom was retained:

sons of the bridal chamber: wedding guests

Mark 2:19 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=mark%202%3A19&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
Jesus said to them,
"The wedding guests[a: Lit _The sons of the bridal chamber_] cannot fast
while the groom is with them, can they?
As long as they have the groom with them,
they cannot fast.

son of peace: a peaceful person

Luke 10:6 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=luke+10%3A6&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
If a son of peace[a: A peaceful person; one open to the message of the kingdom] is there,
your peace will rest on him;
but if not,
it will return to you.

son of destruction: one destined for destruction

John 17:12 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=john%2017%3A12&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
While I was with them,
I was protecting them by Your name
that You have given Me.
I guarded them and not one of them is lost,
except the son of destruction,[a: The one destined for destruction, loss, or perdition]
so that the Scripture may be fulfilled.

2 Thessalonians 2:3 (HCSB)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Thessalonians+2%3A3&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
Don?t let anyone deceive you in any way.
For that day will not come unless the apostasy comes first
and the man of lawlessness is revealed,
the son of destruction.

son of man: typically means "a man"

Hebrews 2:6, quoting the OT (NIV)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=HEBREWS+2%3A6&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
"What is mankind that you are mindful of them,
a son of man that you care for him?

son of encouragement: an encourager

Acts 4:36 (NIV)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=acts+4%3A36&version=MOUNCE;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
Joseph, a Levite from Cyprus, whom the apostles called Barnabas (which means "son of encouragement"),
Compare
Acts 4:36 (Younan, directly from the original Aramaic)
Now Yosip, he who was named by the Shelikha 'Bar-Naba,' which is interpreted 'Bara-d'Buoyaa' [Son of Comfort/ Consolation/ Encouragement/ Prophecy], a Levite from the region of Cyprus?.

Mark 3:17
and Yaqub the son of Zawdee and Yukhanan the brother of Yaqub, to them he gave the name Bnay-Raghshee, that is, Bnay-Raima [Sons of Thunder]

Here are some additional instances of "bar-" i.e. "son of" as part of people's names:

KJV
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=bar&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
Matthew 10:3
Philip, and Bartholomew?.
Matthew 16:17
And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona [son of Jonah]....
Matthew 27:17
Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas [son of Father, resembles his father], or Jesus which is called Christ?

Mark 10:46
And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus [son of Unclean], the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging.

Acts 1:23
And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias.
Acts 13:6
And when they had gone through the isle unto Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Barjesus [son of Jesus/Joshua]?.

===============================.
The idiom "who shall declare his generation?" means 'his line was cut off/ he had no surviving descendants to carry on the family name. See the PDF
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://ia802503.us.archive.org/18/items/WastheNewTestamentReallyWritteninGreek1e/WastheNewTestamentReallyWritteninGreek1e.pdf">http://ia802503.us.archive.org/18/items ... reek1e.pdf</a><!-- m -->
which is linked to from
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://freelibs.org/peshitta/">https://freelibs.org/peshitta/</a><!-- m -->

This Semitic idiom appears in both the OT and the NT:

Isaiah 53:8
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=declare+generation&qs_version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
He was taken from prison and from judgment:
and who shall declare his generation?
for he was cut off out of the land of the living:
for the transgression of my people was he stricken.

Acts 8:33
In his humiliation his judgment was taken away:
and who shall declare his generation?
for his life is taken from the earth.

============================.
The Semitic idiom "gird up your loins" means 'get dressed and ready to move out/ gather up your coat's folds and get ready to run/ get prepared.' It appears in the OT, and twice in the Greek translation of the Aramaic NT:

Luke 12:35
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=gird+loins&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
Let your loins be girded about,
and your lights burning;

1 Peter 1:13
Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind,
be sober,
and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ;

Exodus 12:11
And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the Lord's passover.

1 Kings 18:46
And the hand of the Lord was on Elijah; and he girded up his loins, and ran before Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel.

2 Kings 4:29
Then he said to Gehazi, Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thine hand, and go thy way: if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not again: and lay my staff upon the face of the child.
2 Kings 9:1
And Elisha the prophet called one of the children of the prophets, and said unto him, Gird up thy loins, and take this box of oil in thine hand, and go to Ramothgilead:

Job 38:3
Gird up now thy loins like a man;
for I will demand of thee,
and answer thou me.

Jeremiah 1:17
Thou therefore gird up thy loins, and arise, and speak unto them all that I command thee?.

==============================.
idiom "set his face to go to ____________"

If someone 'sets his face to go to' a geographical location, that means he has decided to go to that place. This Semitic idiom appears twice in the narration of Luke 9:51-53, and several times in the OT:

Luke 9:51-53 (KJV)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+9%3A51-55&version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,
And sent messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.
And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.

Genesis 31:21
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=face+set&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
So he fled with all that he had; and he rose up, and passed over the river, and set his face toward the mount Gilead.

Numbers 24:1
And when Balaam saw that it pleased the Lord to bless Israel, he went not, as at other times, to seek for enchantments, but he set his face toward the wilderness.

2 Kings 12:17
Then Hazael king of Syria went up, and fought against Gath, and took it: and Hazael set his face to go up to Jerusalem.

Jeremiah 42:15
And now therefore hear the word of the Lord, ye remnant of Judah; Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
If ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt,
and go to sojourn there?.
Jeremiah 42:17
So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there; they shall die by the sword....
Jeremiah 44:12
And I will take the remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt....

Ezekiel 21:16
Go thee one way or other, either on the right hand, or on the left, whithersoever thy face is set.

==================================.
idiom "in/before the face of"

The Semiticism "the face of the Lord" appears in the OT, and twice in the NT. The Semiticism "before the face of" can mean 'in the sight of' or 'in advance of another's going/coming.' It appears in the OT, and in the NT:

Psalm 34:16
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=%22face+of+the+lord%22&qs_version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
The face of the Lord is against them that do evil,
to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth.

Luke 1:76
And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest:
for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;

1 Peter 3:12, with the last line quoting Psalm 34:16
For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous,
and his ears are open unto their prayers:
but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil.

Genesis 19:13
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=%22before+the+face%22&qs_version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
For we will destroy this place,
because the cry of them is waxen great before the face of the Lord;
and the Lord hath sent us to destroy it.

1 Samuel 26:20
Now therefore, let not my blood fall to the earth before the face of the Lord:
for the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea,
as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains.

Lamentations 2:19
Arise, cry out in the night:
in the beginning of the watches pour out thine heart
like water before the face of the Lord:
lift up thy hands toward him for the life of thy young children, that faint for hunger in the top of every street.
Lamentations 3:35
To turn aside the right of a man before the face of the most High,

Ezekiel 14:3
Son of man, these men have set up their idols in their heart,
and put the stumblingblock of their iniquity before their face: should I be enquired of at all by them?

Joel 2:6
Before their face the people shall be much pained:
all faces shall gather blackness.

Luke 2:31
Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people;

Acts 7:45
Which also our fathers that came after brought in with Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David;

These are from Luke's narration, and not from his quoting of Semites:

Luke 9:52
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=%22before+his+face%22&qs_version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
And sent messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.

Luke 10:1
After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.
Reply
#39
DavidFord Wrote:
mcarmichael Wrote:I don't know if "redundant" is the right word, but there seems to me a certain poetic meaning in the Greek translation here.
Agreed. As Charles Stanley likes to say, you reap what you sow, later than you sow, more than you sow.
If someone sows hatred into a relationship, he'll reap hatred.
If someone sows peace into a relationship, she'll reap peace.
If someone sows eire-ne- into a relationship, he'll reap eire-ne-. [The "-" indicates a line is present over the preceding letter. Unicode can't be posted.]

James 3:18, from
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/James%203:18">https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/James%203:18</a><!-- m -->
MOUNCE: And de a harvest karpos of righteousness dikaiosyne- is sown speiro- in en peace eire-ne- by those ho who make poieo- peace eire-ne-.

The Aramaic Peshitta allows for such a translation, and beautifully also allows for a different translation:

The Greek manuscripts have a missed translation for James 3:18.
"And the fruit of righteousness is sown in the *shayna* [1. peace/tranquility 2. cultivated land] of them that make shlama [peace]."
"Shayna" can mean tranquility/peace-- see Lk 11:21, Lk 12:51, and esp. Acts 10:36. It can also mean "cultivated land."
Understood one way, the verse says:
'the fruit of righteousness is sown in the peace of them that make peace'-- which emphasizes the righteousness, tranquility/peace, and peace aspects of the verse.
Understood another way, the verse says:
'the fruit of righteousness is sown in the cultivated land of them that make peace'-- lining up the agricultural motifs of fruit, sowing, and cultivated land.
It's an instance of Janus Parallelism.

h/t: the image file
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://www.peshitta.org/images/Peshitta.pps">http://www.peshitta.org/images/Peshitta.pps</a><!-- m -->

David,

I prefer the Greek translation. Or the New International Version. Or the NASV. One of the English versions because I don't speak Greek either.

In any case I hate to hear it said that I am agreed with Charles Stanley. :/

It's poetic in Greek only I think. Not 100%.
Reply
#40
I'm not good at this. I like the Greek translation enough.

Maybe the Aramaic translation is better. I'm just beginning patristic classes at an Orthodox church, perhaps I will have more perspective in more time.
Reply
#41
Idiom: 'in the ears of X': X heard
news reaches 'the ears of Y': Y heard the news

In the narration in Acts 11, there is a Semiticism in observing that a "report? reached the ears of the assembly":

Acts 11:22 (DARBY)
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=acts+11%3A22&version=KJV;DARBY;HCSB;NIV">https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?s ... Y;HCSB;NIV</a><!-- m -->
And the report concerning them reached the ears of the assembly which was in Jerusalem, and they sent out Barnabas to go through as far as Antioch:

Another such Semiticism appears in the book of James:

James 5:4 (KJV)
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Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields,
which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth:
and the cries of them which have reaped
are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.

Matthew quotes a remark that contains the Semiticism:

Matthew 28:14
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=ears+him&qs_version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
And if this come to the governor's ears,
we will persuade him, and secure you.

Somewhat along the same lines, 1 Peter mentions that the Lord hears the prayers of the righteous:

1 Peter 3:12, partly quoting Psalm 34:15
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=ears+lord&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous,
and his ears are open unto their prayers:
but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil.

Below are a few of such Semiticisms that appear in the OT.

Exodus 11:2, KJV
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=%22in+the+ears+of+the+people%22&qs_version=KJV">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... ersion=KJV</a><!-- m -->
Speak now in the ears of the people,
and let every man borrow of his neighbour,
and every woman of her neighbour,
jewels of silver and jewels of gold.

Deuteronomy 32:44
And Moses came and spake all the words of this song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea the son of Nun.

Judges 7:3
Now therefore go to, proclaim in the ears of the people, saying,
Whosoever is fearful and afraid, let him return and depart early from mount Gilead.

1 Samuel 11:4
Then came the messengers to Gibeah of Saul,
and told the tidings in the ears of the people:
and all the people lifted up their voices, and wept.

2 Kings 18:26
Then said Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebna, and Joah, unto Rabshakeh,
Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it:
and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.

Isaiah 36:11
Then said Eliakim and Shebna and Joah unto Rabshakeh,
Speak, I pray thee, unto thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it:
and speak not to us in the Jews' language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall.

Jeremiah 36:6
Therefore go thou, and read in the roll, which thou hast written from my mouth, the words of the Lord in the ears of the people in the Lord's house upon the fasting day:
and also thou shalt read them in the ears of all Judah that come out of their cities.
Jeremiah 36:13
Then Michaiah declared unto them all the words that he had heard,
when Baruch read the book in the ears of the people.
Jeremiah 36:14
Take in thine hand the roll wherein thou hast read in the ears of the people, and come.

Genesis 44:18
<!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=ears+lord&qs_version=KJV&limit=500">https://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearc ... &limit=500</a><!-- m -->
let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears?.

Exodus 10:2
And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt?.
Exodus 17:14
Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua?.

Numbers 11:18
ye have wept in the ears of the Lord, saying, Who shall give us flesh to eat?
Numbers 14:28
Say unto them, As truly as I live, saith the Lord, as ye have spoken in mine ears, so will I do to you:

1 Samuel 3:11
And the Lord said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall tingle.
1 Samuel 8:21
And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he rehearsed them in the ears of the Lord.

2 Samuel 22:7
In my distress I called upon the Lord,
and cried to my God:
and he did hear my voice out of his temple,
and my cry did enter into his ears.

2 Kings 23:2
he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant?.

Psalm 18:6
In my distress I called upon the Lord,
and cried unto my God:
he heard my voice out of his temple,
and my cry came before him, even into his ears.
Psalm 34:15
The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous,
and his ears are open unto their cry.
Psalm 130:2
Lord, hear my voice:
let thine ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications.

Isaiah 22:14
And it was revealed in mine ears by the Lord of hosts,
Surely this iniquity shall not be purged from you till ye die,
saith the Lord God of hosts.

Jeremiah 2:2
Go and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying, Thus saith the Lord?.
Jeremiah 26:15
the Lord hath sent me unto you to speak all these words in your ears.
Jeremiah 36:6
thou shalt read them in the ears of all Judah that come out of their cities.
Jeremiah 36:10
Then read Baruch? in the ears of all the people.
Reply
#42
I hope I get to this sometime because it's good English.

I have another agenda, however. As an Apostolic believer I want to be received by the Assyrian Church.

Apparently the Assyrian Church does not particularly wish to receive me, however. They might though. If I made enough (but not too much) of a nuisance of myself. How cool would that be?
Reply
#43
Shlama Akhi:
Welcome back to the forum. I'd say take it one day at a time.

Shlama,
Stephen
Reply
#44
Stephen Silver Wrote:Shlama Akhi:
Welcome back to the forum. I'd say take it one day at a time.

Shlama,
Stephen

Merci Boqoi.
Reply
#45
DavidFord--

Simply wonderful Studies. Keep Posting things you see/know. From time to time I'm able to see things. You write:

"John 21:15-17 (Younan)
Now after they had dined, Yeshua said to Shimon Keepa,
"Shimon bar-Yonah [Simon son of Jonah],
do you love me more than these?"
He said to him, "Yes, Mari [my Lord]. You know that I love you." He said to him,
"Tend for me amri [my lambs/ young sheep]."...

I believe the word play goes deeper, based on a Semitic habit that goes back to Sumer. I have Posted on this previously. Pettinato in his study of Ebla (quoting Falkenstein) argues that there are pairings of names with animals - " 'nmmr-Haad" is "Panther of haad" and comes to us as Nimrod. During the Rule of Ebrium in Ebla (c. 2500 BCE), "El" is being replaced by "Yah" and " 'mmr-El", "Lamb of El" becomes " 'mmr-Yah", "Lamb of Yah" which becomes "Lamb of God".

Thus, the word play becomes very deep ( and very old...):

"He said to him, "Yes, Lamb of God. You know that I love you." He said to him,
Tend for me my amri [my lambs/ young sheep]..."

***
"The phrase "except for his feet" is present in the original Aramaic:

John 13:10 (Younan of peshitta.org)
Yeshua said to him,
"He who has bathed does not need but to wash only his feet,
for all of him is clean..."

Matthew 14: 28 - 31 (RSV):

[28] And Peter answered him, "Lord, if it is you, bid me come to you on the water."
[29] He said, "Come." So Peter got out of the boat and walked on the water and came to Jesus;
[30] but when he saw the wind, he was afraid, and beginning to sink he cried out, "Lord, save me."
[31] Jesus immediately reached out his hand and caught him, saying to him, "O man of little faith, why did you doubt?"

I believe that these 2 passages related very closely. Peter has "bathed" but begins to sink. He must "therefore" wash his feet and this may be the Template for Foot Washing. The Story here is nowhere near any Greek Land, so to speak. It goes back to its roots and the Roots here are not Greek. It appears that sometimes things are left out for a reason (See Mark: "Are we to drown for all you care?" vs. "Master, we are drowning...") I believe the "'...except for his feet..." may be one of those phrases.

***

DF, I have a request: We look at idioms and they appear in the most in-your-face places. I saw "You must be born again" as an idiom that has been overlooked, probably because it forms the basis for a very important Christian Meaning. It may be an idiom nonetheless. Nicodemus understands the words but not the meaning as is typical of an idiom: "

John3: 4 (RSV):

[4] Nicode'mus said to him, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born?"

By pure happenstance, I found the first appearance of the word "Freedom" in Sumerian as "Amargi", meaning literally, "Return to the Mother". In some Akkadian documents, the word has morphed a bit into "Freeing of Slaves" and the admonition to Nicodemus, "a Ruler of the Jews", may be appropriate, as if to say, "You better get right with God and Free yourself..."

Anything strike you about this word play?

Thank you for your time.

CW
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