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"Master YHWH" and "I AM"s in the Peshitta
Transliterations of Semitic Words (Often Without Added Glosses)
"Bar-", "Beth-", various additional transliterations
The Bottom Line
The Greek translation of the Aramaic Peshitta NT has numerous transliterations of the original Aramaic. 
Certain transliterations constitute evidence that Jesus and the people around him spoke Aramaic.
Certain transliterations in Pauline epistles constitute evidence that Paul wrote in Aramaic to Aramaic-reading groups; I'm thinking particularly of Kephas and "Maran atha."
Certain transliterated words for which Greek writers probably already had suitable equivalents provide evidence that certain NT books were originally written in Aramaic; I'm thinking particularly of kuminon (cumin), libanos (frankincense), Sabbaton (Saturday), sikera (an alcoholic beverage), and zizanion (a noxious weed that could be confused with wheat).
The retention of "bar-" in the Greek mss. in certain individuals' names provides evidence that at the time of Jesus, parents were naming their children with Aramaic names, and hence, were probably speaking Aramaic.
Tilton, Joshua N. and David N. Bivin.  "Greek Transliterations of Hebrew, Aramaic and Hebrew/Aramaic Words in the Synoptic Gospels"
The original is at
Tilton & Bivin observe that in the Greek NT, there are a "number of foreign words that were transliterated into Greek from either Hebrew or Aramaic (it is often impossible to distinguish Hebrew from Aramaic in Greek transliteration). Since modern translations of the Bible tend to hide these transliterated words, most readers are not aware of how many transliterated words there are in the Synoptic Gospels."
The Greek NT has approximately 138,000 words.
More than 500 of the words are transliterations of Semitic-- usually Aramaic-- words..
In the Hebrew OT, "ben-" means "son of." 
In the Aramaic portions of the OT, "bar-" means "son of.
"Bar-" appears at Daniel 3:25, 5:22, 5:31, 7:13, Ezra 5:1, 5:2 (twice), and Ezra 6:14.
Daniel 7:13 has "kbr ansh."
When the Aramaic Peshitta NT was translated into Greek, people's names were transliterated (often without an accompanying translation).  Here are some instances of Aramaic names containing "bar-":
Barabbas = "son of a father or master"
the captive robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of Christ
Barjesus = "son of Jesus"
a certain false prophet
Barjona = "son of Jonah" [i.e. son of a Dove]
the surname of the apostle Peter
Barnabas = "son of rest" [I'd say son of comfort/ consolation/ encouragement]
the surname of Joses or Joseph, a Levite, a native of Cyprus…. a distinguished Christian teacher and companion and colleague of Paul.
Bartholomew = "son of Tolmai"
one of the twelve apostles of Christ
Barsabas = "son of Sabas"
1.  the surname of a certain Joseph (Acts 1:23)
2.  the surname of a certain Judas (Acts 15:22)
Bartimaeus = "son of Timaeus"
a certain blind man
The retention of "beth-" in the Greek mss. in certain places' names provides evidence that at the time of Jesus, people were calling locations by either Aramaic or Hebrew names, and hence, were probably speaking Aramaic or Hebrew.
In the Hebrew OT and the Aramaic NT, "beth-" means "house/place of."  When the Aramaic Peshitta NT was translated into Greek, place names were transliterated (often without an accompanying translation).  Here are some instances of places containing "beth-":
"Bethabara"  appeared out of a mistranslation or mistransmission.  In the translation from Aramaic into Greek of John 1:28, or in the later recopying of that passage, some things got jumbled in that some Greek manuscripts erroneously have 'Beth-Abara' instead of Beth-Aniya.  Beth-Bara was an OT place meaning 'House/Place of a Crossing/Ferry.'  See also
Bethany = "house of dates" or, "house of misery"
1.  a village at the Mount of Olives, about two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, on or near the normal road to Jericho
2.  a town or village on the east bank of the Jordan, where John was baptising
Bethesda = "house of mercy" or "flowing water"
the name of a pool near the sheep-gate at Jerusalem, whose waters had curative powers
Bethphage = "house of unripe figs"
the name of a hamlet between Jericho and Jerusalem, close to Bethany
Bethlehem = "house of bread"
a village about six miles (10 km) south of Jerusalem
Bethsaida = "house of fish"
1.  a small fishing village on the west shore of Lake Gennesaret, home of Andrew, Peter, Philip and John
2.  a village in lower Gaulanitis on the eastern shore of Lake Gennesaret, not far from where the Jordan empties into it
Various Additional Transliterations of Semitic Words
Gloss:  Aramaic for father
Definition:  father
In Greek translations, it appears at Mk 14:36; Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6-- see the above URL.
Aceldama = "Field of Blood"
a field purchased with Judas's betrayal money, located near Jerusalem
It appears here:
Acts 1:19 (DARBY);DARBY
And it was known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
so that that field was called in their own dialect [Greek:  dialektos] Aceldama;
that is,
field of blood [Greek:  chorion haima].
This passage demonstrates that at the time of Jesus' crucifixion, the "inhabitants of Jerusalem" spoke Aramaic.
The Greek manuscripts' transliteration and translation are markedly different, and in the Aramaic, similarly different in appearance are the first Aramaic phrase and the second Aramaic phrase.
Acts 1:19 (based on Younan)
and this became known to all who lived in Urishlim,
and thus that field was called in the tongue of the area, Khaqel-d'Ma,
that is thurgmh [interpreted], Qurith Dm [Field-of Blood]--
praise ye the Lord, Hallelujah
It appears at Rev 19:1, 19:3-4, 19:6-- see
1.  firm
metaph. faithful
2.  verily, amen
-- at the beginning of a discourse -- surely, truly, of a truth
-- at the end -- so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled. 
It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues to the Christian assemblies, that when he who had read or discoursed, had offered up solemn prayer to God, the others responded Amen, and thus made the substance of what was uttered their own.
The word "amen" is a most remarkable word.  It was transliterated directly from the Hebrew into the Greek of the New Testament, then into Latin and into English and many other languages, so that it is practically a universal word.  It has been called the best known word in human speech.  The word is directly related -- in fact, almost identical -- to the Hebrew word for "believe" (amam), or faithful.  Thus, it came to mean "sure" or "truly", an expression of absolute trust and confidence.  -- HMM
"Amen" appears over 125 times in the Greek translation of the Aramaic NT.  See
Beelzebub = "lord of the house" [I'd say:  lord of the:  dung?  flies?]
a name of Satan, the prince of evil spirits
It appears at Mt 10:25, 12:24, 12:27; Mk 3:22; Lk 11:15, 11:18, 11:19-- see
Looking at the original Aramaic, we see this:
Mark 3:17 (based on Younan)
and Yaqub the son of Zawdee and Yukhanan the brother of Yaqub, to them he gave the name Bnay-Raghshee [Sons of:  Rage, or Tumult, or Thunder, or Feeling-- per Bauscher], that is, Bnay-Raima [Sons of Thunder].
The Greek translation of the original Aramaic transliterated the first Aramaic phrase, and translated the second Aramaic phrase:
Mark 3:17 (DARBY);DARBY
and James the [son] of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, and he gave them the surname of Boanerges [Greek:  Boanerges], that is, Sons of thunder [Greek for "Sons of thunder":  hyios bronte];
As noted by
the word origin for Boanerges is Aramaic.
ephphatha!, be opened!
Aramaic, be thou opened, Mk. 7:34
Greek mss. have a transliteration in Mk 7:34, followed by the addition of a gloss:
Mk 7:34 (KJV);DARBY
And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him,
that is,
Be opened [Greek:  dianoigo].
Note the stark dissimilarity of the transliteration and the translation.
Here is my transliteration of the original Aramaic, with the translation in brackets:
Mk 7:34-35 (based on Younan)
34. And he looked into heaven and sighed and said to him,
"Aetpatak!"[be opened]
35. And at that moment, his ears were opened….
Gabbatha = "elevated or a platform"
a raised place, elevation
In the Greek was called Lithostrotos, or the pavement of stones, as the Syrian [i.e. Aramaic] version renders it: it is thought to be the room Gazith, in which the sanhedrin sat in the temple when they tried capital causes; and it was so called, because it was paved with smooth, square hewn stones: "it was in the north part; half of it was holy, and half of it was common: and it had two doors, one for that part which was holy, and another for that part that was common; and in that half that was common the sanhedrin sat." So that into this part of it, and by this door, Pilate, though a Gentile, might enter. This place, in the language of the Jews, who at that time spoke Syrian [i.e. Aramaic], was Gabbatha, from its height, as it should seem; though the Syrian and Persian versions read Gaphiphtha, which signifies a fence or enclosure. Mention is made in the Talmud of the upper Gab in the mountain of the house; but whether the same with this Gabbatha, and whether this is the same with the chamber Gazith, is not certain. The Septuagint uses the same word as John here does, and calls by the same name the pavement of the temple on which Israelites fell and worshipped God.
It appears at Jn 19:13.
Hell is the place of the future punishment call "Gehenna" or "Gehenna of fire".  This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their future destruction.
It appears at
Mt 5:22, 5:29, 5:30, 10:28, 18:9, 23:15, 23:33; Mk 9:43, 9:45, 9:47; Lk 12:5; James 3:6-- see
Golgotha = "skull"
the name of a place outside Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified; so called, apparently because its form resembled a skull
It appears at
Mt 27:33; Mk 15:22; Jn 19:17-- see
Hosanna! (exclamation of praise, originally Save [us]!)
Hosanna!  save now, help now, Mt. 21:9, 15; Mk. 11:9, 10; Jn. 12:13
Kananites [some Greek mss. instead have Kananaios]
Canaanite = "zealous"
the surname of apostle Simon, otherwise known as "Simon Zelotes"
From another website:
Zealot, Cananaean (not related to geographical terms Cana or Canaan); same as {2421}, zealot}
a Canaanite, Mt. 10:4; Mk. 3:18
Paul wrote 1 Corinthians and Galatians in Aramaic, using the Aramaic term Kapa (meaning "Rock") to refer to Peter.  When 1 Corinthians was translated into Greek, that Aramaic word was transliterated as Kephas.
Cephas (Aramaic for Peter), rock
Cephas, Rock, rendered into Greek by Petros
It appears at
Jn 1:42; 1 Cor 1:12, 3:22, 9:5, 15:5; Gal 1:18, 2:9, 11, 14-- see the above URL.
temple treasury, the sacred treasury, Mt. 27:6
a corus or cor, the largest Hebrew dry measure (i.e, for wheat, meal etc.) about 10 to 11 bushels (350 to 400 l)
It appears at Luke 16:7-- see
cummin is a cultivated plant in Palestine with seeds that have a bitter warm taste and an aromatic flavor
It appears at Mt 23:23-- see
1  the frankincense tree
2  the perfume, frankincense
It appears at Mt 2:11, Rev 18:13-- see
1 mammon
2 treasure
3 riches (where it is personified and opposed to God)
It appears at Mt 6:24, Luke 16:9, 16:11, 16:13-- see
manna = "what is it"
1 the food that nourished the Israelites for forty years in the wilderness
2 of the manna was kept in the ark of the covenant
3 symbolically, that which is kept in the heavenly temple for the food of angels and the blessed
It appears at
Jn 6:31, 49; Heb. 9:4; Rev. 2:17-- see
"Maran atha"
our Lord cometh or will come
It appears at 1 Cor 16:22.
A sect that seems to have started after the Jewish exile.  In addition to OT books the Pharisees recognised in oral tradition a standard of belief and life.  They sought for distinction and praise by outward observance of external rites and by outward forms of piety, and such as ceremonial washings, fastings, prayers, and alms giving; and, comparatively negligent of genuine piety, they prided themselves on their fancied good works.  They held strenuously to a belief in the existence of good and evil angels, and to the expectation of a Messiah; and they cherished the hope that the dead, after a preliminary experience either of reward or of penalty in Hades, would be recalled to life by him, and be requited each according to his individual deeds.  In opposition to the usurped dominion of the Herods and the rule of the Romans, they stoutly upheld the theocracy and their country's cause, and possessed great influence with the common people.  According to Josephus they numbered more than 6000.  They were bitter enemies of Jesus and his cause; and were in turn severely rebuked by him for their avarice, ambition, hollow reliance on outward works, and affection of piety in order to gain popularity.
It appears in over 90 places in the Greek translation, e.g. Mt 5:20-- see
1 the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people's deliverance of old from Egypt)
2 the paschal lamb, i.e. the lamb the Israelites were accustomed to slay and eat on the fourteenth day of the month of Nisan (the first month of their year) in memory of the day on which their fathers, preparing to depart from Egypt, were bidden by God to slay and eat a lamb, and to sprinkle their door posts with its blood, that the destroying angel, seeing the blood, might pass over their dwellings; Christ crucified is likened to the slain paschal lamb
3 the paschal supper
4 the paschal feast, the feast of the Passover, extending from the 14th to the 20th day of the month Nisan
It appears in over 25 places in the Greek translation, e.g. Luke 2:41-- see
1 my great one, my honourable sir
2 Rabbi, a title used by the Jews to address their teachers (and also honour them when not addressing them)
It appears in 15 places in the Greek translation, e.g. Matthew 23:7-- see
1  empty, i.e. a senseless, empty headed man
2  a term of reproach used among the Jews in the time of Chris
I would say the Aramaic "rqa" means "spit," short for "(I) spit (on you)" or "(you are) spit/vile/horrid/foul."  It only appears at Mt 5:22. 
Aramaic to Arabic to Latin to English-- with word-for-word comparison with the Arabic-- produced "O!  horrid one";
Aramaic to Arabic to English produced "Thou foul one"--
see Diatesseron 8:51, translations of J. Hamlyn Hill (1894) and Hope Hogg (1897).
1 master, chief, prince
2 Rabboni is a title of honour Mary used to address Jesus
It appears at Mk 10:51, Jn 20:16.
1  the seventh day of each week which was a sacred festival on which the Israelites were required to abstain from all work
1a  the institution of the sabbath, the law for keeping holy every seventh day of the week
1b  a single sabbath, sabbath day
2  seven days, a week
It appears over 65 times in the Greek translation, e.g. Mt 12:10-- see
1  a keeping sabbath
2  the blessed rest from toils and troubles looked for in the age to come by the true worshippers of God and true Christians
It appears at Heb 4:9-- see
"Lord of Sabaoth"  Lord of the armies of Israel, as those who are under the leadership and protection of Jehovah maintain his cause in war
It appears at Rom 9:29, James 5:4-- see
1  adversary (one who opposes another in purpose or act), the name given to
a  the prince of evil spirits, the inveterate adversary of God and Christ….
b  a Satan-like man
It appears over 35 times in the Greek translation, e.g. Mt 4:10-- see
a kind of dry measure, 3 gallons (14 litres)
It appears at Mt. 13:33; Lk. 13:21-- see
strong drink, an intoxicating beverage, different from wine; it was a artificial product, made of a mixture of sweet ingredients, whether derived from grain and vegetables, or from the juice of fruits (dates), or a decoction of honey
It appears at Lk 1:15-- see
Woe aka Ouai
alas, woe
It appears over 45 times in the Greek translation of the Aramaic NT, e.g. Mt. 11:21-- see
a kind of darnel, resembling wheat except the grains are black
It appears in 8 places in the Greek translation, at Mt 13:25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 36, 38, 40-- see
Mark 15:34
Working with the original Aramaic, note the close similarity of the 2 transliterations of the 2 different Aramaic dialects:
Mark 15:34 (based on Younan)
And in the ninth hour, Yeshua cried out in a loud voice and said,
"'Ail!  Ail!  Lamna shwaqthani?'",
that is,
"'Allahi!  Allahi!  Lamna shwaqthani?'"
[My Allaha!  My Allaha!  Why have you spared me?/ Why have you let me live?  Cf. Ps 22:1, which Lamsa translates the Peshitta OT as having, "My Allaha, my Allaha, why hast thou let me to live?"]
In the Greek translation of the original Aramaic for that passage, the second Aramaic dialect line was transliterated and then translated:
Mark 15:34 (HCSB);DARBY
with Greek words from;DARBY
And at three Jesus cried out with a loud voice,
"Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?"
which is translated,
"My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"[Greek:
ho ego Theos, ho ego Theos, eis tis enkataleipo ego]
Note the stark dissimilarity of Greek manuscripts' transliteration of the original Aramaic, compared with the Greek manuscripts' translation.

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RE: "Master YHWH" and "I AM"s in the Peshitta - by DavidFord - 07-09-2015, 03:56 PM

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