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The Crawford Codex of Revelation ? Glaser Transcript
Thanks man, that?s very kind. Yes, I?m at Chapter 21 right now and have already found 15+ errors in Gwynn?s 1897 transcript, and many important distinctions (see list below) between the ancient Crawford codex and the modern Peshitto.

The Crawford codex is amazing ? to my mind, it utilizes consistent and precise grammar throughout the entire book. My observation is that the standard/consensus text (I call it ?Standard Peshitto? or ?SP?) has many corruptions where scribes have omitted words, added words, changed words (sometimes carefully the same word (such as rys (?head?) or raza (?secret?)) is changed throughout the entire book), and changed grammar (i.e., changing an Aphel conjugation to a regular passive voice) ? always to fit some ideological meaning or (pre)conceived notion for what those scribes thought the text was pointing toward. But when you read the Crawford codex (that doesn?t have the modern changes), you gain insights into possibly why scribes of SP made changes (often at junctures of potential ambiguity), either because they didn?t like an assumption in their mind, or in the text, or perhaps in their preferred dialect.

For example, SP assumes ?David? isn?t supposed to have an aleph in it, so they took the aleph out. Or the SP scribe would change a word to its singular form because they thought it was supposed to point to the singular thing they were thinking rather than the plural thing referenced very logically just one or two nouns earlier in the text. Awesomely, when you read Crawford l-e-t-t-e-r by letter, you can see the book doesn?t always point where you expect (see e.g., Rev 11:12), yet it always remains entirely logical and grammatically consistent.

You can read my spreadsheet for details, but in a nutshell here the key points that emphasize Crawford?s originality and uniqueness:

? 1:1 ? consistent grammar in Crawford suggests the first word glyna (?revelations?) is actually plural

? 1:3 ? the first blessing is to Yahshua exclusively. The second blessing is to those who hear and guard the word, and their blessing is not separate from Yahshua but rather is within Yahshua (because the blessing is stated as a singular word twbThna, which is an emphasized word (na suffix) to show the fullness of the blessing given to Yahshua).

? 1:6 ? Crawford uses the definite article twice lEalma dEalma to confirm that the Father remains in control of the ?the age of this world?.

? 1:16 ? an energetic ?spirit? (ruKha) comes from the mouth of the messiah, not a sharp spear (rumKha)

? 2:17 ? Crawford identifies a person in Pergama with a solitary life, not a white pebble/accounting. I hope to show the importance of this fact soon, as I think it reveals a mystery about Christian monasteries in ancient Southwestern Syria.

? 2:23 ? Crawford has a scribal correction in the margin about the bridal veil of Jezebel

? 3:7 ? Crawford has the spelling davyd. The first spelling dvd was used during the first temple period, and then dvyd was the progression of the name around the second temple period. And now here is Crawford we see davyd, which is suggestive of a third temple period (the messiah is the temple).

? 6:12 - In regards to the beginning of the 6th seal, Crawford has nuhra ("light"). Obviously that is a big difference from the standard translation of the 6th seal beginning with nuda ("earthquake"). So the standard text prophesies a great earthquake, whereas Crawford prophesies a great light.

? 6:12 ? Crawford refers to the sun being like zqa (?wineskin?), whereas the standard translation has sqa ("sackcloth").

? 6:14 - Crawford says the sky aThpShr ("was dissolved/interpreted"). By contrast, the Peshitto has aThprSh ("was parted").

? 7:4 ? Crawford spells Israel aysrayl, which preserves the wordplay with ayln in the beginning of this chapter seven.

? 7:15 ? Crawford uses the Aphel conjugation of nagn (?will cause dwelling?), which conveys a much different meaning that ngn (?will dwell?) because the subject here is the one Alha on the throne.

? 9:11 ? Referring to the angel of the abyss, Crawford has mlaka ("angel/messenger") but the standard translation is mlka ("king"). So Crawford highlights many angels overseeing the 5th seal locusts, and one particular angel as the angel of the abyss. By contrast, the standard translation refers only to this ?king/ruler angel? of the abyss.

? 10:1 - Regarding the angel?s feet, Crawford has gmura ("burning coals"), whereas the standard translation has Eamuda ("pillars"). Crawford preserves the wordplay in the verse that refers to the Gemara and Mishnah.

? 10:6 ? Crawford has two unique aspects that change the grammar of the verse to point it correctly, as you can see in more detail in my spreadsheet.

? 10:9 ? The Peshitto has 13 additional words here to state twice that John devours the little scroll. By contrast, Crawford advises only once that John eats the scroll.

? 11:6 ? In regards to how the two witnesses cause harm to the earth, SP has udnmKhwn ("and they will strike (plural)"), whereas Crawford has udnmkkun ("and they will lay low (plural)").

? 11:12 - Crawford has an Aphel conjugation umaTsdyn ("are caused to gaze") but SP has the normal passive umTsdyn ("and were gazing"). The meanings are quite different, because Crawford suggests that the two witnesses (filled with spirit) are directed by spirit to gaze from above into their enemies below, whereas SP suggests the enemies below are gazing into the witnesses above.

? 11:13 ? Crawford has a vav prefix that potentially changes the whole meaning of the verse, such that 7,000 men die in the earthquake and desolation, rather than 7,000 names of men in the earthquake.

? 11:19 ? In reference to the ark of the covenant in heaven, SP has the same spelling for the ark of the covenant on earth, but Crawford has a unique and plural spelling ?ark of the convenants?.

? 12:1 ?SP has a ?crown of stars? on the woman, but Crawford has ?crown of thorns?.

? 13:3 ? SP has waThdmrTh ("and was amazed"), but Crawford has waThdbrTh ("and was guided").

? 13:12 ? Regarding the authority of the second creature with respect to the first creature, SP has ThEabd ("was worked"), but Crawford has dThEabry ("of being transferred"). Crawford has a more specific legal meaning, and a potential wordplay with Eabr ("Hebrew"), which is quite relevant if Rome transferred its office/authority to any particular institution, such as the Catholic church.

? 13:14 ? Regarding the actions of the second beast, SP has wThtEaa ("and is seducing") whereas Crawford has wThEata ("and is forgiving"). The root in Crawford is Eata, which has some important alternate definitions as well: "cover", "blot out", "cancel". Some will be reminded of the Catholic priests forgiving sins, or the infamous Catholic power of excommunication.

? 14:3 - SP has ala an maa ("unless if one hundred..."), whereas Crawford has umaa ("and one hundred..."). The difference is important because SP is saying that the 144,000 are nSha ("humans"), but Crawford is saying they are not nSha ("humans") because the text just advised that no nSha ("humans") are able to learn the song. Indeed, the text confirms this further by saying these 144,000 were purchased from the earth. So the 144,000 are in the kingdom of Alha at this point, rather than characterized as nSha ("human"). Lastly, this phrase umaa begins a new sentence in Crawford that concludes in the next verse with the word bThula ("virgins").

? 14:14 - SP has KhrypTha ("swift/sharp"), but Crawford has KhurTha ("shining/white"). Crawford is logical because Rev 14:18 highlights only one angel that holds a "swift/sharp sickle" and he is identified in Rev 14:17-18 as we note the singular tense ldayTh mglTha KhrypTha ("to he having to him the sickle sharp").

? 16:8-9 - SP has three phrases here that are not found in Crawford. SP concludes Rev 16:8 with the phrase bnura ("in fire") and then begins the new verse with uaThKhmmu bnynSha ("and were scorched the sons of men"). Crawford is more logical because it does not require men to burn literally ?in fire? as SP requires, but rather Crawford specifies that men are burned by the great heat.

? 16:16 - SP has an extra word here. SP has unknSh anun ("and will assemble them") in the plural form, whereas Crawford has simply unknSh ("and will assemble") in the singular form. Crawford matches the singular tense of the previous verse (Rev 16:15). By contrast, SP is plural so it requires reference back two verses to the anun ("them") in Rev 16:14. This is a very important distinction because it means that SP connects mgdu ("Megiddo" or "Armageddon") with war. By contrast, Crawford opens up the possibility that mgdu ("Megiddo") is not a place of war (or at least not exclusively a place of war), but rather is (also) the positive place where a last remnant ('he/she who watches and guards his/her garments') can assemble for the blessing of meeting ?Yahshua the thief?. Indeed, in Hebrew mgdu means "pleasant" and "valuable", which sounds like it could be a fitting place for 'Yahshua the thief' to steal away this remnant. Moreover, the dichotomy of verses further supports the Crawford reading, as Rev 16:12-14 describe evil spirits and war, whereas Rev 16:15-16 appear to focus on the positive, namely Yahshua and the remnant.

? 17:12 - SP has the ten horns ruling for ShEaTha ("hour" or "moment") but Crawford has ShnTha ("year" or "sleep"). This is a big difference, especially given the Roman precedent of the DECEMVIRI who ruled for one year and set law.

? 17:16 ? Regarding the relationship between the whore and the ten horns, SP states that the ten horns nsnyn ("will hate (plural)"), but Crawford has nsEarn ("will inspect (plural)"). The root verb in Crawford sEar has many alternate meanings: "visit", "look after", "heal", "care for", "work", "perform", "act".

? 18:9 ? SP states oddly regarding the merchants who watch Babylon burn waShThEalyw ("and they were elevated") but Crawford has the logical phrase w0ShThEayw ("and they tell tales"). Crawford comes from the root aShThEawTha ("tale/narration/speech").

? 19:9 ? Regarding those invited to the lamb?s supper, SP has kThub ("write"), but Crawford has Thub ("again/repent"). Crawford is used logically here as an expression Thub tubyhun which means "they are blessed again" or "they are even more blessed".

? 19:9- Regarding the lamb?s supper, SP has repetitively dmShThwThh ("of his marriage feast"), but Crawford has this unique insight dThShmShThh ("of his service").

? 19:17 - SP has Thu aThknShu ("come be assembling (plural)"), but Crawford has uaThknShu ("and they were assembled"). The distinction changes the verse and quote, because SP is translated, "And he says to the birds that fly in the middle of heaven/sky, 'come, be gathering together to the supper great of Alha." By contrast, Crawford is translated, "And he says to the birds of flying, 'be midst the sky'. And they were assembled to the supper great of Alha."

? 19:19 - SP has umlka ("and kings"), but Crawford has ulmlka ("and to kings"). The lamed here is quite significant because Crawford distinguishes between 'the creature and her armies' and 'the kings of the earth and their armies'.

? 20:6 ? SP has mnTha ("part"), but Crawford has myTha ("death"). Crawford is logical, first because it emphasizes that only those who have died can receive the blessing, and second because this word myTha concludes the sentence; and the next word bqymTha is logically the beginning of the next sentence (thereby preventing a run-on sentence).

More to come?

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Re: The Crawford Codex of Revelation ? Glaser Transcript - by gregglaser - 08-29-2014, 09:07 PM

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