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Did the Greeks translate 'stauros and xulon' from Aramaic?
Shlama all,

It is true; the Greek "stauros" is matched with both "Tslayba" and "Zqaypha". Mark 8:34 and 10:21 in Greek have "stauros" , but in Aramaic we find "Zqaypha" and "Tslayba", respectively. In Luke 9:23 and 14:27 we find "stauros" in Greek, but "Zqaypha" & then "Tslayba" in Aramaic.The next occurrence of stauros is in Luke 23:26 where the Aramaic has "Zqaypha".
The same applies to the verb "crucify"; Greek "staurow" is matched both with Aramaic "Tslab" and with "Zqaph", sometimes in close proximity by the same writer.Luke 23:23 and 24:7 both have "staurow" in Greek, but Aramaic has "Zqaph" in 23:23 and "Tslab" in 24:7. John 19:15 has Greek "staurow" twice; in Aramaic, the first one is paralleled by "Tslab", "Tslab" (two of them together) , and the second "staurow" is matched with "Zqaph" (Pilate uses the word)!

What rhyme or reason can account for an Aramaean translating the same Greek root by alternating two Aramaic root words for it, sometimes in the same verse?!

The Greek "Xulos" ("wood") is even more interesting. It is paired up with four different Aramaic words in the NT!
xulov(wood) - abylu (cross), aoyq(wood,tree), ado(stocks), arjwx (staff)
Here are two verses from Luke:
Lu 22:52 eipen de o ihsouv prov touv paragenomenouv ep auton arciereiv kai strathgouv tou ierou kai presbuterouv wv epi lhsthn exelhluyate meta macairwn kai xulwn
Lu 22:52 Then Jesus said to the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be you come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
ynnwdxatd arjwxbw apyob yle Nwtqpn ayjol led Kya alkyhd alyx ybrw asysqw anhk ybr yhwle wtad Nwnhl ewsy rmawLu 22:52 Peshitta

Lu 23:31 oti ei en tw ugrw xulw tauta poiousin en tw xhrw ti genhtai
Lu 23:31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?
awhn anm asybyb Nydbe Nylh abyjr aoyqb NadLu 23:31 Peshitta

Greek does have a word specifically for "tree"; it is "dendron", yet it is not used here. Aramaic has also "Eylana", which is more specific for "tree".

How does a Greek primacist know the soldiers did not bring crosses to Gethsemane? How about fire wood? Stocks? Trees? Xulos does not really make sense there, for it is too generic. Aramaic has "arjwx"(staves",clubs").

In Luke 23:31, the same question arises.

The Greek "Xulos" just does not cut the mustard in the various contexts in which it is used in the NT. It also does not commend itself as original. This is simply one of many such examples in the NT where Greek uses a generic term or monolithic simplification of two or more Aramaic words: "Demon" has one Greek word; Aramaic has 3; The Greek NT has one word for "peace"; The Peshitta has two.

The Greek primacist has some rather difficult explaining to do, I think. If the Greek were the original, then the same Greek word is used 22 times in the NT and is translated with four different Aramaic words, which occur 31 times in the NT!

I have extensive analysis of this kind of parallel word comparison in my book, Divine Contact, which is a free download from The Hebrew OT and LXX provide a model for how an original text compares with its translation in the matching up of cognate words in the two languages involved and the ratios of total numbers of those words. The Peshitta compares to the Greek NT in the same way the Hebrew OT does to The LXX (Greek Septuagint translation of The OT). I compared 20 different cognate word groups in computer searches for words totals in each language in all verses where they occur, displayed in parallel fashion.

Without exception, The Peshitta fits the Hebrew OT model of the original text; The Greek matches the model of The LXX as a translation of the original Semitic text.

The whole analysis data table includes over 15,000 words in all versions tested, including control texts, Latin Vulgate, Greek NT, Peshitta NT,Hebrew OT and LXX.

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Re: Did the Greeks translate 'stauros and xulon' from Aramaic? - by gbausc - 06-23-2008, 03:12 PM

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