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_The Peshitta Holy Bible_ translated by David Bauscher
David, thanks very much for publishing this.  I was wondering, could you please translate the rest of the Peshitta Tanakh, and publish that?

_The Peshitta Holy Bible_, translated by David Bauscher
....the 39 Old Testament books and the 27 New Testament books....
I doubt he will...but it would be nice to have something to consult in English of the rest of the books. David is some type or Protestant (Baptist I think), so his view of the other books in the OT canon would be very low, if not a total rejection of they wouldn't bring in much money for him for his trouble. Maybe he could run the text of the other Peshitta OT books through his code finder program, find some interesting phrases, and be convinced of their worth and inspiration. I doubt he would try it.


Translatio Syra Pescitto Veteris Testamenti: Ex codice Ambrosiano, Sec. fere VI
Edited with an Introduction by Antonio Maria Ceriani; Introduction by Emidio Vergani
Table of Contents (page 5)
Donors and Subscribers (page 18)
Preface to Ceriani's Facsimile (page 20)
Back Cover of Codex Ambrosianus 7a1 (page 23)
Genesis (page 701)
Exodus (page 673)
Leviticus (page 646)
Numbers (page 626)
Deuteronomy (page 594)
Job (page 573)
Joshua (page 560)
Judges (page 547)
1 Samuel (page 533)
2 Samuel (page 514)
Psalms (page 498)
1 Kings (page 468)
2 Kings (page 449)
Proverbs (page 431)
Wisdom of Solomon (page 420)
Qohelet (page 411)
Song of Songs (page 407)
Isaiah (page 405)
Jeremiah (page 380)
Lamentations (page 347)
Letter of Jeremiah (page 340)
Letter of Baruch (page 339)
Baruch (page 337)
Ezekiel (page 333)
Hosea (page 303)
Joel (page 298)
Amos (page 297)
Obadiah (page 294)
Jonah (page 293)
Micah (page 292)
Nahum (page 290)
Habakkuk (page 289)
Zephaniah (page 288)
Haggai (page 286)
Zechariah (page 285)
Malachi (page 280)
Daniel (page 279)
Bel and the Dragon (page 268)
Ruth (page 266)
Susanna (page 264)
Esther (page 261)
Judith (page 256)
Bar Sira (page 244)
1 Chronicles (page 217)
2 Chronicles (page 196)
Apocalypse of Baruch (page 170)
4 Ezra (page 150)
Ezra (page 130)
Nehemiah (page 123)
1 Maccabees (page 111)
2 Maccabees (page 88)
3 Maccabees (page 67)
4 Maccabees (page 57)
Josephus: Jewish Wars 6 (page 43)

Codex syro-hexaplaris Ambrosianus: [Reprint of the Original from 1874] (Latin Edition) (Latin) by Antonio Maria Ceriani

Codex Ambrosianus _B._ 21.
_Inf._ sec. fere VI, membranaceus, fol. 330, altus ex mensura _metrica_
0,36, latus 0,20, continet V.T. translationis Syrae Pescitto hoc ordine:
Pentateuchum, Job, Josue, Judices, Samuel, Psalmi, Reges,
Proverbia, Sapientia, Ecclesiastes, Canticum Canticorum, Isaias,
Jeremias, Threni, Epistola Jeremiae, Epistola I et II Baruch, Ezechiel,
XII Prophetae minores, Daniel cum Bel et Dracone, Ruth, Susanna,
Esther, Judith, Ecclesiasticus, Paralipomena, Apocalypsis Baruch,
I Esdrae (IV apud Latinos), Esdras et Nehemias, Machabaeorum libri V,
sed postremus est reapso liber VI de Bello Judaico Flavii Josephi.
Desunt 5 folia, Num. III, 23-V, 10….

With the aid of Google translate, I came up with:
Codex Ambrosianus _B._ 21.
_Inf._ sec. was about 6, membranous, fol. 330, from a high measure of _metrica_
0,36, 0,20 side, contains V.T. the transfer of the Syro Pescitto in this order:
Pentateuch, Job, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Psalms, Kings,
Proverbs, Wisdom, Ecclesiastes [aka Qoholet], Song of Songs, Isaiah,
Jeremiah, Lamentations, Letter of Jeremiah, Letters 1 and 2 of Baruch, Ezekiel,
12 Minor Prophets, Daniel with Bel and the Dragon, Ruth, Susanna,
Esther, Judith, Sirach, Paralipomena [1 and 2 Chronicles], Apocalypse/Revelation of Baruch,
1 Ezra (4 at Latin), Ezra and Nehemiah, the 5 books of Maccabees,
but ultimately it is in fact the book 6 Jewish War by Flavius Josephus.
The leaves are lacking 5 Num. 3, 23-5, 10 ....

George M. Lamsa's Intro to his translation of the Peshitta Tanakh and Peshitta NT
Reference that the Assyrian Church of the East-- the keeper of the Peshitta OT (a translation into Aramaic from Hebrew) and the Peshitta NT (the original Aramaic)-- split from the Catholic Church in A.D. 1054?
A "Catholic Bible" lacks books present in the Peshitta OT, and thus, isn't "a complete Bible."
Actually, it declared itself independent in A.D. 424. The great schism in A.D. 1054 was the other Orthodox churches from the Church of Rome.

Gorgias Press Antioch Bible is the only Peshitta OT to include all the books, but from what I've read I actually don't really like their translation style. Some weird gender forms in there, reminiscent of the 2011 NIV. Plus, there's the cost...
ܠܐ ܒܥܒܕܐ ܕܙܕܝܩܘܬܐ ܕܥܒܕܢ ܐܠܐ ܒܪܚܡܘܗܝ ܕܝܠܗ ܐܚܝܢ ܒܣܚܬܐ ܕܡܘܠܕܐ ܕܡܢ ܕܪܝܫ ܘܒܚܘܕܬܐ ܕܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ
Steve Caruso at
The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (CAL) has the Peshitta Old Testament based on the Leiden Critical Edition. However, it's a tool that takes some practice to use well:
Click on "Search the CAL Lexical and Textual Databases" on the left.
Then click on "Text Browse"
Then select "Syriac" and hit "Submit."
Scroll down in the list to the 62000 block (P Gn, P Ex, P Lv, etc.). Those are the Peshitta OT entries.

(05-06-2019, 09:00 PM)Luc Lefebvre Wrote: Actually, it declared itself independent in A.D. 424. The great schism in A.D. 1054 was the other Orthodox churches from the Church of Rome.
Gorgias Press Antioch Bible is the only Peshitta OT to include all the books, but from what I've read I actually don't really like their translation style. Some weird gender forms in there, reminiscent of the 2011 NIV. Plus, there's the cost...

Yes, I see that they're quite pricey.
David, I noticed your notes for Col 3:6, 7. Do you believe in Universal Restoration i.e. are you a universalist?
I've posted pro-UR material at
Do you think any of the books in the 1611 KJV, but absent from modern Protestant Bibles, belong in the Bible?
Do you think any of the books in the LXX, but absent from modern Protestant Bibles, belong in the Bible?
Do you think any of the books in the Peshitta Tanakh, but absent from modern Protestant Bibles, belong in the Bible?

1611 KJV
1 Esdras
2 Esdras
Additions to Esther
Wisdom of Solomon
Letter of Jeremiah
Prayer of Azariah
Bel and the Dragon
Prayer of Manasseh
1 Maccabees
2 Maccabees

As indicated above, Christians normally employed the LXX Greek translation in early years, preferring it to the Hebrew texts that they generally could not read. In fact, Justin Martyr (c. 160 CE) regarded the LXX as the only reliable text of the Old Testament, asserting that the Jews had deliberately corrupted contemporary Hebrew texts. The exact order of books in the LXX did not standardize until late, but eventually, the order settled down to the following order, familiar to Christians:
Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy
Joshua; Judges; Ruth; 1-4 Kingdoms; 1-2 Chronicles "things left over"; 1-2 Esdras; Esther (expanded); Judith; Tobit
Psalms (expanded); Proverbs; Ecclesiastes; Song of Songs; Job; Wisdom of Solomon; Sirach
The Twelve; Isaiah; Jeremiah; Baruch; Lamentations; Letter of Jeremiah; Ezekiel; Daniel (expanded); 1-2 Maccabees; 3 Maccabees (sometimes); 4 Maccabees (sometimes)
Do you think 2 Maccabees 12:38-46 belongs in the Bible? It's in the LXX and the Peshitta Tanakh.

2 Maccabees 12:38-46 (NABRE)
38 Judas rallied his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was approaching, they purified themselves according to custom and kept the sabbath there. 39 On the following day, since the task had now become urgent, Judas and his companions went to gather up the bodies of the fallen and bury them with their kindred in their ancestral tombs. 40 But under the tunic of each of the dead they found amulets sacred to the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. So it was clear to all that this was why these men had fallen. 41 They all therefore praised the ways of the Lord, the just judge who brings to light the things that are hidden. 42 [a]Turning to supplication, they prayed that the sinful deed might be fully blotted out. The noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen. 43 He then took up a collection among all his soldiers, amounting to two thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to Jerusalem to provide for an expiatory sacrifice. In doing this he acted in a very excellent and noble way, inasmuch as he had the resurrection in mind; 44 for if he were not expecting the fallen to rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead. 45 But if he did this with a view to the splendid reward that awaits those who had gone to rest in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. 46 Thus he made atonement for the dead that they might be absolved from their sin.

a: 12:42-45 This is the earliest statement of the doctrine that prayers (v. 42) and sacrifices (v. 43) for the dead are efficacious. Judas probably intended his purification offering to ward off punishment from the living. The author, however, uses the story to demonstrate belief in the resurrection of the just (7:9, 14, 23, 36), and in the possibility of expiation for the sins of otherwise good people who have died. ....

Maccabees in the New Testament
My last article presented several of Jesus' teachings from the Wisdom of Sirach and noted the fact that Matthew's gospel paid particular attention to those teachings. While Wisdom of Sirach had only a limited impact on the New Testament, the history of the Maccabees affected first century Judaism so strongly that our Protestant avoidance of 1st and 2nd Maccabees has enabled serious errors in some of our most central doctrines. Like Sirach, 1st and 2nd Maccabees have been mislabeled as "apocrypha," a title originally reserved for heretical Gnostic writings;1 but no apocryphal teachings arise in 1st or 2nd Maccabees. Even if one does not accept these books as Scripture, Martin Luther called them "profitable and good to read."2 My hope is that this article will encourage many Christians to read these chronicles of resistance and victory, which strongly shaped Jewish culture at the time of our Lord's incarnation and the Writings which followed from His apostles.
The “glory” which Mattathias promised his sons was God's “salvation” from their enemies, which is the primary theme of salvation in the New Testament, not salvation from hell or from God’s wrath, as is commonly thought in Protestantism. Jesus spoke about hell (directly or indirectly) in just 60 verses, 3% of our red-letter verses. Yet in the four Gospels alone, demons (including Satan) are specifically mentioned or quoted as speaking in 120 verses. This number does not include indirect references nor vague titles like “the enemy” or even the “evil one,” as in the Sower parables. On page after page, Jesus directly battles unclean spirits. When He frees people from demons, He speaks of Satan’s kingdom and proclaims His own kingdom of heaven or “kingdom of God.” He refers to Satan’s kingdom as “this world” and “the world,” setting Himself in opposition to it. Throughout the Gospels we hear of the battle between Light and darkness, as though the Maccabean battles had raged on without an end.
We may recognize the implications of wrath and hell in the Great Commission or in Paul’s commission, but the explicit and predominant theme throughout the New Testament is that of a war between two kingdoms and the escape of prisoners who “turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God.” We do not read 1st and 2nd Maccabees, therefore we overlook that theme and then offer the subtexts (wrath and hell) as the New Testament’s primary theme. The Maccabees fought flesh and blood; our King and His apostles fought equally real enemies for the salvation of prisoners: “He has delivered us from the power of darkness and conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love.” (Col 1:13 NKJV)
“Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we do not wrestle with flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.” (Eph 6:11-12 NKJV)
Maccabean salvation from enemies happened by God’s grace through faith after works of the law by circumcised, zealous, Separatists. The Maccabean history markedly colors the New Testament, and our Protestant theology suffers from its omission from our reading. Without reading the Maccabean history, we misunderstand the faith of the Pharisees, the contextual meaning of "salvation" in the New Testament, faith basis of "zeal for the law" and of "works," and the role of Hellenization within New Testament events. Overlooking 1st and 2nd Maccabees cause gross misinterpretations of Jesus and His apostles.
Do you think Sirach belongs in the Bible? It's in the LXX and Peshitta Tanakh.
"what else" Do those books that are in the LXX and in the Peshitta Tanakh-- but absent from modern printed Protestant Bibles-- belong in the Bible? See above for lists of the books being asked about.
My copy of the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible includes material from Jubilees, 1 Enoch, Sirach, The Epistle of Jeremiah, and Tobit.
How should Habakkuk 2:4 be rendered?
("my faith"? "his faith"? simply "faith"? "the truth of them"? "truth"?)

From where did Paul get the OT quote he presents in Romans 1:17?
(a textual stream from which the Masoretic is derived?
a textual stream from which the LXX is derived?
the Aramaic Targum? the Peshitta Tanakh?)

v. 2.5, Romans '1:17 For in it is revealed God’s righteousness from faith to faith.
As it is written, “But the righteous shall live by faith.” '

Habakkuk 2:4 (Targum, in _The Targum of the Minor Prophets_, The Aramaic Bible Vol 14 (1989), 259pp., 150-151
Behold, the wicked think that all these things are not so,^17
but the righteous shall live by the truth of them.
17: MT being obscure....

Habakkuk 2 (Brenton Septuagint)
1 I will stand upon my watch, and mount upon the rock, and watch to see what he will say by me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved.
2 And the Lord answered me and said, Write the vision, and that plainly on a tablet, that he that reads it may run.
3 For the vision is yet for a time, and it shall shoot forth at the end, and not in vain: though he should tarry, wait for him; for he will surely come, and will not tarry.
4 If he should draw back, my soul has no pleasure in him: but the just shall live by my faith.
5 But the arrogant man and the scorner, the boastful man, shall not finish anything; who has enlarged his desire as the grave, and like death he is never satisfied, and he will gather to himself all the nations, and will receive to himself all the peoples.
6 Shall not all these take up a parable against him? and a proverb to tell against him? and they shall say, Woe to him that multiplies to himself the possessions which are not his! how long? and who heavily loads his yoke.
7 For suddenly there shall arise up those that bite him, and they that plot against thee shall awake, and thou shalt be a plunder to them.
8 Because thou hast spoiled many nations, all the nations that are left shall spoil thee, because of the blood of men, and the sins of the land and city, and of all that dwell in it.

Romans 1:17, Pulpit Commentary
"The just shall live by his faith." So in the Hebrew. The LXX. has Ὁ δὲ δικαιός μου ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται (A.), or Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίτεως μου ζήσεται (B).

Habakkuk 2 (JPS Tanakh 1917)
1 I will stand upon my watch,
And set me upon the tower,
And will look out to see what He will speak by me,
And what I shall answer when I am reproved.
2 And the LORD answered me, and said:
‘Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables,
That a man may read it swiftly.
3 For the vision is yet for the appointed time,
And it declareth of the end, and doth not lie;
Though it tarry, wait for it;
Because it will surely come, it will not delay.’
4 Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him;
But the righteous shall live by his faith.
5 Yea, moreover, wine is a treacherous dealer;
The haughty man abideth not;
He who enlargeth his desire as the nether-world,
And is as death, and cannot be satisfied,
But gathereth unto him all nations,
And heapeth unto him all peoples.
6 Shall not all these take up a parable against him,
And a taunting riddle against him,
And say: ‘Woe to him that increaseth that which is not his!
How long? and that ladeth himself with many pledges!’
7 Shall they not rise up suddenly that shall exact interest of thee,
And awake that shall violently shake thee,
And thou shalt be for booties unto them?
8 Because thou hast spoiled many nations,
All the remnant of the peoples shall spoil thee;
Because of men’s blood, and for the violence done to the land,
To the city and to all that dwell therein.

Habakkuk 2 (Peshitta Tanakh, Lamsa translation)
1¶ I WILL stand upon my place and set me upon the rock tower,
and I will watch to see what he will say to me and what I shall answer because of my chastisement.
2 And the LORD answered me and said, Write the vision, and make it plain upon tablets, that he who reads it may understand it clearly.
3 For the vision will come to pass at its appointed time, and it shall be fulfilled at the end, it shall not lie;
and if it should delay, do not be impatient, because it will surely come, it will not delay.
4 For his soul does not delight in iniquity, but the righteous man shall live by faith.
5¶ The arrogant and greedy man is never satisfied, because he has enlarged his appetite like Sheol;
and like death, he has never enough, but gathers to him all peoples, and draws near to him all the nations.
6 Shall not all these take up a parable against him, and a taunting proverb against him, and say, Woe to him who gathers and increases that which is not his!
How long will he load himself with earthly goods?
7 Behold, they shall rise up suddenly, those who shall bite you, and awake those who shall cause you trouble, and you shall be for spoil to them.
8 Because you have plundered many nations, so the remnant of the people shall plunder you;
because of men’s blood and the violence of the land, of the city, and of all that dwell therein.

Habakkuk 2:4 (Dead Sea Scrolls)
Beh[old] the proud one, his soul is not right [within him;
but the rig]hteous shall liv[e] by his faith.

Romans 1:17
(Etheridge) for the righteousness of Aloha in it is revealed from faith to faith, as it is written,
The righteous by faith shall live.
(Murdock) For in it is revealed the righteousness of God, from faith to faith; as it is written,
The righteous by faith, shall live.
(KJV) For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written,
The just shall live by faith.
For Mt 24:28, is it: vultures? eagles?

"24:28 For wherever the carcass is,
there is where the vultures gather together."

105. aetos
aetos: an eagle
Original Word: ἀετός, οῦ, ὁ
Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
Transliteration: aetos
Phonetic Spelling: (ah-et-os')
Definition: an eagle

Is "Spirit of Holiness" something a native speaker of Greek would write?

Romans 1:4 (Berean Literal)
having been declared _the_ Son of God
in power according to _the_ Spirit of holiness,
by resurrection _from the_ dead:
Jesus Christ our Lord,
"the gospel (the good news that Christ died for...."
What would you call "the good news" Jesus spoke about in Mt 11:5?

Matthew 11:5 (NIV)
The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is proclaimed to the poor.
interlinear of Greek:
euangelizontai/εὐαγγελίζονται/are gospelized

"The gospel (the good news that Christ died for guilty sinners so that we could be reconciled to a Holy God) is the power unto salvation. This is how Christians are saved"
According to this, how are people saved?:

Matthew 25 (Young's Literal)
31 ‘And whenever the Son of Man may come in his glory, and all the holy messengers with him, then he shall sit upon a throne of his glory; .... 34 ‘Then shall the king say to those on his right hand, Come ye, the blessed of my Father, inherit the reign that hath been prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 35 for I did hunger, and ye gave me to eat; I did thirst, and ye gave me to drink; I was a stranger, and ye received me; 36 naked, and ye put around me; I was infirm, and ye looked after me; in prison I was, and ye came unto me. 37 ‘Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when did we see thee hungering, and we nourished? or thirsting, and we gave to drink? 38 and when did we see thee a stranger, and we received? or naked, and we put around? 39 and when did we see thee infirm, or in prison, and we came unto thee? 40 ‘And the king answering, shall say to them, Verily I say to you, Inasmuch as ye did [it] to one of these my brethren — the least — to me ye did [it].
It's been said that Codex Sinaiticus is a 'heavyweight' when it comes to textual criticism.  Do you think the OT books present in Codex Sinaiticus belong in the CVB?  If not, how come not?  (because Jerome said so?)

As it survives today, Codex Sinaiticus comprises just over 400 large leaves of prepared animal skin, each of which measures 380mm high by 345mm wide. On these parchment leaves is written around half of the Old Testament and Apocrypha (the Septuagint), the whole of the New Testament, and two early Christian texts not found in modern Bibles. Most of the first part of the manuscript (containing most of the so-called historical books, from Genesis to 1 Chronicles) is now missing and presumed to be lost.
The Septuagint includes books which many Protestant Christian denominations place in the Apocrypha. Those present in the surviving part of the Septuagint in Codex Sinaiticus are 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, 1 & 4 Maccabees, Wisdom and Sirach.
Jerome declared that all books outside the Hebrew canon were apocryphal.
It's been said that Codex Vaticanus is a 'heavyweight' when it comes to textual criticism. Do you think the OT books present in Codex Vaticanus belong in the CVB? If not, how come not? (because Jerome said so?)

Vaticanus Old Testament Books List
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
*3 Esdras (LXX 1 Esdras)*
2 Esdras (Ezra-Nehemiah)
Song of Songs
*Prologue to Ecclesiasticus*
Esther *(with additions)*
*Epistle of Jeremiah*
Daniel *(with additions)*
The titles above are taken from standard English OT usage or from the titles supplied by the online editors (e. g., 3 Esdras) and not necessarily as they are titled in the Vaticanus text. Apocryphal works *in red.*
Jerome declared that all books outside the Hebrew canon were apocryphal.

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