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Shlama Akhay ,

I have just sent more Peshitta Proofs in my summary to Dan Gan to post on my Peshitta site. Some of the new material I will post here :

10. The Impeccability of The Peshitta???s text, grammar, historical and general information.
The Greek NT, in all its forms, has some unfortunate and uncertain readings that are either poor Greek grammar , illogical or factually false.
An example of a falsehood in the all the Greek texts is in the very first chapter of the NT: Matthew 1:17, which says : 7 (AV) So all the generations from Abraham to David [are] fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon [are] fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ [are] fourteen generations.

The problem with this verse is that the verses preceding being summarized show only thirteen generations from Babylonian captivity to The Christ, as the Greek texts present it. The Peshitta text presents an alternative possibility not possible with the Greek text. ???Joseph??? in verse 16 may refer to the name of Mary???s father, rather than her husband. The Aramaic word ???Gabra??? , (???Andros??? in Greek), can mean ???Man??? or ???Guardian???. If it refers to Mary???s father , then this Joseph would be one generation earlier than Mary, and Mary next, then Jesus Christ.

Paul Younan, a native Aramaean fluent in the Aramaic language has explained this beautifully in an article on, his web site for Aramaic studies in Peshitta NT primacy and Assyrian culture.
This would be then,Mary???s genealogy , not her husband , Joseph???s, and why should it be ? Joseph???s genealogy is given fully in Luke 3:23-38 and it bears little resemblance to this one in Matthew ! Have a look for yourself; to support the traditional view that Matthew presents Joseph???s genealogy creates many more problems than it can solve. The Peshitta text solves the generation number problem and the stark differences between Luke???s and Matthew???s genealogies.
Some commentators do some pretty fancy gymnastics in Luke to show that ???Josepth, son of Heli??? really means ???Joseph son in law to Heli???. That would make this genealogy Mary???s without naming Mary in it , while Joseph???s name is in her genealogy ! This puts a bit of a strain on one???s credulity, to say the least.
Another mistatement in the Greek texts is found in Matthew 27: 9,10 ??? ???Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value;
10 And gave them for the potter???s field, as the Lord appointed me.???

The problem with all the Greek texts is the name ???ieremiou??? (Jeremiah). The text being quoted is found in Zechariah, not Jeremiah ! The Peshitta does not name the prophet being quoted; he is simply ???The Prophet???.

In Revelation 1:4 we have eirhnh apo tou o wn kai o hn kai o ercomenov kai apo twn epta pneumatwn a estin enwpion tou yronou autou
peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

Without getting too technical, suffice it to say that the Greek of v.4 is bad Greek grammar. Some may defend it by showing there are other examples like it , but it does not make bad grammar good to show that others have used bad grammar ! Revelation is particularly faulty in its quality of Greek. The other books have no such glaring errors in this regard.

I have been in close contact with Paul Younan and am familiar with his writings and translation of The Peshitta; he has indicated that The Peshitta contains no errors of the kind I have discussed, nor of any other kind that he has ever seen. I have yet to encounter any in my translation work in The Peshitta (I have translated over 70% of the Gospels and Acts) and I have not seen any substantive claim of error in any Peshitta reading.

10. It would be consistent with former scriptural tradition and inspiration that New Covenant writings would be given in Aramaic , not in Greek. Greek was a foreign and pagan tongue to the Jews of Palestine ; Hebrew and Aramaic were sacred , as the Law and the Prophets were written in those languages. Aramaic was the native tongue of the Jewish people, not only in Israel, but also in Asia Minor and Europe. It had been so for several centuries and would continue to be for centuries following.

11. This evidence I will call ???Entropy levels???. Entropy can be defined as the amount of disorder contained in a system ; it may also indicate information levels; a high entropy level would indicate low information level and a low entropy indicates a high level of information. I compared The Greek NT and The Peshitta NT in number of prepositions, personal pronouns and conjunctions and found the Peshitta contains 3,798 more of these (11% more) than the Greek NT. For a translation ??? original model I compared The LXX to The Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew Bible contains 7457 more (7.66% more) than the LXX Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible contains. This evidence is analyzed in an article I titled ???Lost in Translation???. It may be read at <!-- m --><a class="postlink" href=""></a><!-- m -->

An extensive translation, as the title suggests, has less information in it than the original, under normal circumstances. It is highly unlikely a translator would add information to his translation not found in the original; even less likely that several or many successive translators of the same NT text
would all add information in the form of extra prepositions ,personal pronouns , possessive pronouns and conjunctions to the translation not found in the original text. It is far more likely and common that the translator(s) would drop some words which he may consider superfluous or inappropriate to the style and syntax of the translation language (Greek, in this case).

12. What I will call The ???divinity??? of The Peshitta demonstrates its originality and inspiration. This involves certain linguistic features as well as something of a more spiritual or mystical nature. One main feature that impresses me about the Peshitta NT is the manner in which it magnifies the Divine nature of The Messiah Jesus above and beyond what is found in the Greek NT (and I have been studying the Greek NT since 1974). I consider this the most important aspect of any Bible version and of this particular category of evidence. Christianity is based on the belief in the Deity of The Christ, by definition. The original NT would be expected to set this doctrine forth most clearly and powerfully; any translation could only approximate the original; the integrity and veneration of a devout translator would prevent him from deliberate addition to or distortion of the original.

Let me give an example: The Peshitta contains 222 instances of the Name ayrm -???Marya???. This is the Aramaic form of hwhy -???Yahweh???. ???Marya??? literally means ???Lord-Jah??? , or ???Lord Jehovah???. The OT Peshitta uses this name invariably to translate ???Yahweh??? over 6500 times ! I would translate it ???Lord God???, to clarify its meaning to those unfamiliar with the Old Testament.
???Marya??? refers to The Christ at least 32 times in The NT ! The Greek language has no equivalent for this Name; the best we can find in the Greek NT is Kuriov -???Kurios??? (???Lord???) which occurs for 204 of the 222 instances of ???Marya???. ???Kurios??? is an ambiguous term; it can refer to Yahweh or to Adon or Ba???al (???Master???, ???Sir???). Six times the Greek Yeov -???Theos??? (God) is found for ???Marya???; twice, Kuriov Yeov- ???Kurios Theos???( ???Lord God???) is found; thrice ???despothv??? (???Despotase???- Pontentate);once proyesewv ???protheseos??? (???Purpose???); once kurieuw ???kurieuw??? (to rule as lord); once katakurieuw ???katakurieuo??? (to rule over as lord).Four times nothing is found in the Greek text matching the Aramaic divine name ayrm -???Marya???.

For the NT we have 204/222 = 92%.

In the LXX book of Genesis, Kuriov -???Kurios??? (???Lord???) matches the Hebrew hwhy -???Yahweh??? 122 out of 150 occurrences, or 81% of the time ! The other Greek translations in the LXX for ???Yahweh??? are Kuriov Yeov - ???Kurios Theos??? (???Lord God???) and -???Theos???(???God???) and ???despothv??? (???Despotase???- Pontentate) !

1 Chronicles has 138/146 - Kurios/Yahweh or 94.5% . Averaged with Genesis we have 260/296 or 87.8% for Kurios to Yahweh ratio , about 4% lower than the Greek NT to Peshitta NT ratio of ???Kurios??? to ???Marya???!

In The Greek NT, Six times the Greek Yeov -???Theos??? (God) is found for ???Marya???; twice, Kuriov Yeov- ???Kurios Theos???( ???Lord God???) is found; that is, only 3.6% of the references to ???Yahweh???-???Jehovah??? in The Peshitta have an unmistakeably Divine Name in the Greek . 92% have ???Kurios???, which can refer to a mere human being or to the Deity, depending on the context. This usage in The Greek NT is in keeping with The LXX translation practice where 88% of the translations of ???Yahweh??? are ???Kurios???.
As the LXX has a ???watered down presentation??? of this most important Hebrew Name of God, so the Greek NT has a watered down version of the same, due to the non Semitic Greek translation language. It also appears that the Greek NT translator(s) conformed their work to the LXX model, as most word examples like this one show results very similar to The LXX results as compared to the Hebrew Bible.

Put in a positive light, The Peshitta presents Jesus The Messiah as Jehovah (???The Lord God???) over thirty times throughout The NT???s pages, from Matthew to Revelation ! That is a very exciting discovery to the Christian worshipper ! The Peshitta provides 32 powerful arguments for the Deity of Yeshua Meshikha found nowhere in the Greek NT.
The following examples include the Peshitta text, a translation of it, based on Murdock???s translation, and then the Authorized Version, called The KJV, which ,of course, is translated from the Greek NT.

ewsy Nwna las asyrp Nyd Nysynk dk 41
41 And while the Pharisees were assembled, Jesus questioned them,
41 Now, the Pharisees having come together, Jesus questioned them, saying???

dywd rb hl Nyrma wnm rb axysm le Nwtna Nyrma anm rmaw 42
42 and said: What say ye respecting, the Messiah? Whose son is he? They say to him; The son of David.
42 How, to you, doth it seem, concerning the Christ? Whose son, is he? They say unto him???David???s.

ryg rma ayrm hl arq xwrb dywd ankyaw Nwhl rma 43
43 He saith to them: How then doth David, by the Spirit, call him The Lord God ? for he said:
43 He saith unto them???How then doth, David, in spirit, call him, Lord, saying???

Kylgr tyxt Kybbdleb Myoad amde ynymy Nm Kl bt yrml ayrm rmad 44
44 The Lord God said to my Lord, Seat thyself at my right hand, until I place thy enemies under thy feet.
44 The Lord, hath said unto, my Lord,???Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thy foes thy footstool?

wh hrb ankya ayrm hl arq dywd lykh Na 45
45 If David then call him The Lord God, how is he his son?
45 If then, David, calleth him, Lord, How, is he, his son?

If the Psalm quote is confusing, let the reader know that in Psalm 110, from which this is a quotation,
verse 5 says in the unedited Hebrew text, as well as in The Peshitta OT version, ???The LORD (Yahweh)
at Thy right hand shall strike through kings??????. The Psalm refers to The Messiah at God???s right hand as Yahweh. This explains our Lord???s reference to verse 1 ; Verse one was an abbreviated reference to the entire Psalm 110 and its teaching. Notice that the KJV , translating the Greek text, has no reference to Jehovah (???The LORD God???).

Our LORD Himself wanted the Jews to know that the Messiah is ???The LORD GOD???. This is a very important passage, but the Greek is comparatively a very weak substitute for the meaning in Aramaic.

Another reference is in Luke 2:

dywdd htnydmb axysm ayrm yhwtyad aqwrp anmwy ryg Nwkl dlyta Lu 2:11
Lu 2:11 (BYZ) oti etecyh umin shmeron swthr ov estin cristov kuriov en polei dauid
Lu 2:11 (MUR) For there is born to you this day a deliverer, who is The Lord God The Messiah, in the city of David
Lu 2:11 (AV) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.

Another is from John 8, the story of the adulteress brought before Jesus:

apak hyle adsn aymdq hjx ald yhwtyad Nwknm anya Nwhl rmaw jspta hl Nylasm dk wrtk Nyd dk 7
7 (MUR) And as they continued asking him, he straightened himself up, and said to them: Whoever among you is without sin, let him first cast a stone at her.
7 <<When, however, they still continued questioning him, he lifted himself up and said unto them???He of you, that is without sin, let him first cast at her a stone;>>

aera le awh btk Nhgta dk bwtw 8
8 (MUR) And, having again stooped down, he wrote on the ground.
8 <<and, again stooping down, he wrote in the ground.>>

ateumb hytya dk hydwxl attna tqbtsaw asysq Nm wyrs dk dx dx wwh Nyqpn wems dk Nyd Nwnh 9

9 (MUR) And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning with the older; and the woman was left, alone where she had stood in the midst.
9 <<And, they who heard, began to go out, one by one, beginning from the elders,???and he was left, alone; the woman also, being, in the midst.>>

ykbyx sna al Nwhytya akya attnal hl rma ewsy jspta Nyd dk 10
10 (MUR) And when Jesus had straightened himself up, he said to the woman: Where are they? Doth no one condemn thee?
10 <<And lifting himself up, Jesus said unto her???Woman, where are they? Hath, no one, condemned thee?>>

Nyjxt al bwt ash Nmw ylz ykl ana byxm ana alpa ewsy Nyd rma ayrm sna alw trma Nyd yh 11
11 (MUR) And she said: No man, Lord God. And Jesus said: Neither do I condemn thee. Go thou, and henceforth sin no more.
11 <<And, she, said???No one, Sir! And Jesus said???Neither do, I, condemn thee,???be going thy way: Henceforth, be sinning, no more.>>
According to the Palestinian Aramaic mss. (whence this passage is taken), the woman accused of adultery called Jesus ???The LORD GOD???! That is an incredible statement and confession of faith ! This puts the whole story in a new and almost blinding light !

The next is in Acts 2:

Nwtpqz Nwtnad ewsy anhl ahla hdbe axysmw ayrmd lyroya tyb hlk edn lykh tyaryrs Ac 2:36
Ac 2:36 (BYZ) asfalwv oun ginwsketw pav oikov israhl oti kai kurion kai criston auton o yeov epoihsen touton ton ihsoun on umeiv estaurwsate
Ac 2:36 (MUR) Therefore, let all the house of Israel know, assuredly, that God hath made that Jesus whom ye crucified, to be The Lord God and The Messiah.
Ac 2:36 (AV) Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.

Here Peter declares to Israel at Pentecost that Jesus is The Lord God The Messiah !There is no doubt left concerning His Deity.
And also Acts 2:

asdwqd axwrd atbhwm Nwlbqtd ahjx Nqbwsl ewsy ayrmd hmsb Nwknm sna sna wdmew wbwt Nwems Nwhl rma Ac 2:38
Ac 2:38 (BYZ) petrov de efh prov autouv metanohsate kai baptisyhtw ekastov umwn epi tw onomati ihsou cristou eiv afesin amartiwn kai lhqesye thn dwrean tou agiou pneumatov
Ac 2:38 (MUR) Simon said to them: Repent, and be baptized every one of you, in the name of The Lord God Jesus, for the remission of sins; so that ye may receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Ac 2:38 (AV) Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

To be baptized in The Name of The LORD GOD Jesus was certainly a confession of faith in the absolute Deity of Jesus The Messiah by one???s baptism !

And again in Acts:

yrm ana ah rmaw aynnx awzxb hl rma ayrmw aynnx awh hmsd dx adymlt qwomrdb hb Nyd awh tya 10 (Peshitta)
10 (BYZ) hn de tiv mayhthv en damaskw onomati ananiav kai eipen prov auton o kuriov en oramati anania o de eipen idou egw kurie
10 (MUR) And there was in Damascus a certain disciple, whose name was Ananias. And The Lord God said to him, in a vision: Ananias! And he said: Lo, I am here, my Lord.
10 (AV) And there was a certain disciple at Damascus, named Ananias; and to him said the Lord in a vision, Ananias. And he said, Behold, I am here, Lord.

alum wh dk ryg ah atnydm oworj Nm yhwtyad lwasl adwhyd atybb yebw auyrt arqtmd aqwsl lz Mwq hl rma Nrmw 11 (Peshitta)
11 (BYZ) o de kuriov prov auton anastav poreuyhti epi thn rumhn thn kaloumenhn euyeian kai zhthson en oikia iouda saulon onomati tarsea idou gar proseucetai
11 (MUR) And our Lord said to him: Arise, go to the street which is called Straight; and inquire in the house of Judas, for Saul who is from the city of Tarsus: for, lo, while he prayed,
11 (AV) And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the street which is called Straight, and enquire in the house of Judas for one called Saul, of Tarsus: for, behold, he prayeth,

asdwqd axwr almttw Kynye Nxtptnd Kya tna ata dk axrwab Kl yzxtad wh ynrds ewsy Nrm yxa lwas hl rmaw adya yhwle Mow htwl atybl lza aynnx Nydyh 17 (Peshitta)
17 (BYZ) aphlyen de ananiav kai eishlyen eiv thn oikian kai epiyeiv ep auton tav ceirav eipen saoul adelfe o kuriov apestalken me o ofyeiv soi en th odw h hrcou opwv anableqhv kai plhsyhv pneumatov agiou
17 (MUR) Then Ananias went to the house to him; and he laid his hand upon him, and said to him: Saul, my brother, our Lord Jesus, he who appeared to thee by the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thy eyes might be opened, and thou be filled with the Holy Spirit.
17 (AV) And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost.

So we see, according to the Peshitta in verse 10, that Jesus is called ???The Lord God???, Who appeared to Saul of Tarsus and Ananias in Damascus.

Two more for now:

asdwqd axwrb Na ala ewsy wh ayrmd rmaml xksm sna alpaw ewsy wh Mrxd rmaw llmm ahlad axwrbd sna tyld Nwkl ana edwm anh ljm 1Co 12:3
1Co 12:3 (BYZ) dio gnwrizw umin oti oudeiv en pneumati yeou lalwn legei anayema ihsoun kai oudeiv dunatai eipein kurion ihsoun ei mh en pneumati agiw
1Co 12:3 (MUR) I therefore inform you, that there is no man, that speaketh by the Spirit of God, who saith that Jesus is accursed: neither can a man say that Jesus is The Lord God, except by the Holy Spirit.
1Co 12:3 (AV) Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.

???The Holy Spirit will glorify Me???, said Jesus. ???He will not speak from Himself???. This is how we know the voice of The Holy Spirit; He declares Jesus is THE LORD GOD. He magnifies and reveals the infinite majesty, glory and power of our Savior and Messiah ! That is the purpose and Divine desire of The Holy Spirit; He leads us to see and know Who Yeshua really is and what He means to Heaven and earth; God The Father and The Spirit are enthralled with The Person of The Son, their ???Only One???, Jesus. His Name is higher than every name forever and ever.

Nyhms lk Nm rtymd ams hl bhyw hmrmr ygoa ahla Pa anh ljm 9 (Peshitta)
9 (MUR) Wherefore, also, God hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is more excellent than all names;
9 (AV) Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name:
9 (BYZ) dio kai o yeov auton uperuqwsen kai ecarisato autw onoma to uper pan onoma

aera Nm txtldw aerabw aymsbd Pwkt Kwrb lk ewsyd hmsbd 10 (Peshitta)
10 (MUR) that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of beings in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth;

10 (AV) That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth;
10 (BYZ) ina en tw onomati ihsou pan gonu kamqh epouraniwn kai epigeiwn kai katacyoniwn

yhwba ahlad axbwsl axysm ewsy wh ayrmd adwn Nsl lkw 11 (Peshitta)
11 (MUR) and that every tongue should confess that Jesus the Messiah is the Lord God, to the glory of God his Father.
11 (AV) And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
11 (BYZ) kai pasa glwssa exomologhshtai oti kuriov ihsouv cristov eiv doxan yeou patrov

This Peshitta NT is the one that testifies most powerfully to The Divine glory of The Person of Jesus Christ. There is no other New Testament like this one, and I have yet to list most of the verses with just this Name alone.

[The Peshitta text cannot be explained as a translation of The Greek NT. How would 222 occurrences of ???Marya??? be derived from 761 occurrences of ???Kurios??? in the Greek NT ? Why not translate most of them the same, since most of them are references to Deity ? Why also did The Peshitta writers not use ???Marya??? consistently for Jesus? Sometimes other forms are used. The term, ???Kurios Ihsous???- ???The Lord Jesus???, occurs in the Greek texts 64 times. Why did the Peshitta writers not simply use ???Marya??? at least 64 times for Jesus in those places, instead of only half of them ?
The Greek has the term ???Kuriov hmwn???- ???Kurios hmwn???-???Our Lord??? 80 times;The Peshitta has it- (???Maran???) 307 times !Over 200 of these are represented in The Greek NT by ???o kurios??? ??? ???The Lord???.
Are we to believe that (an) Aramaean translator(s) added the Ist person plural personal pronoun 227 times in Matthew through Revelation to the translation of ???Kurios???-???Lord??? to make it ???Our Lord??? ? Highly unlikely ! It is much more likely the reverse scenario happened. Translators will usually omit words like these rather than add them.

The Byzantine Greek book of Luke has ???Ihsous???-???Jesus??? 98 times. The Critical text of Westcott & Hort has it 88 times. The Peshitta Gospel of Luke has ???Yeshua???-???Jesus??? 175 times ! That is 77% more than the Majority Greek text and 99% more than the Critical Alexandrian text ! Imagine a translator adding the name of Jesus to the translation 77 to 87 times in one gospel, almost doubling the number in a Greek original ! Again, highly unlikely.Far more likely is the opposite scenario of a Greek translator omitting 77 to 87 (44%-50%) of occurrences of the name of Jesus in The Peshitta from the Greek text to smooth out the translation and retain the clear sense of the original, which the Greek generally does.

Think about it: What is more likely; to omit 50% of the original occurrences of a word over the length of the Gospel of Luke (about 50 pages) , or to deliberately add 99%(almost doubling the number) of the same to the original text in a translation ?]

My article ???Lost in Translation??? elaborates on and analyzes this type phenomenon in detail at <!-- m --><a class="postlink" href=""></a><!-- m -->

13. Our Lord prophesied that ???Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall never pass away.???If The original New Testament was written in Greek, we have none of the words our Lord spoke ! ???How is that ????, you say . It has been agreed by all authorities on the history of Israel that Jesus spoke Aramaic as His native tongue as did His countrymen and that the people of Israel would not generally understand Greek. If for some very strange reason, the original NT was Greek, we would not have any of the words recorded that Jesus originally spoke, only a translation of those words. I don???t believe Jesus was referring to translations of His words, in Matthew 24:35. He was referring to the original words being written, as the Hebrew Law and Prophets had generally been written, in the original languages (Hebrew and Aramaic) of the speakers and audiences of those words.
Even if Jesus had spoken Greek, we are uncertain of the original readings in many places of The NT because of the many variations among the thousands of Greek manuscripts.Generally we have certainty of the first Greek readings- about 97% of the text is undisputed. That still leaves about 22,000 letters or about 5000 words in doubt in the Greek text. Even those subscribing to The Majority Greek text (I personally believe it is the most accurate Greek NT) must admit to difficulties in places where there is no clear majority reading- e.g. John 7:53-8:11, and many readings in Revelation.

The Peshitta encounters no such difficulties as the Greek has. Its mss. agree so closely that the true reading is easily discerned in 99.98% of the NT. That leaves about 100 letters , or 25 average sized words to quibble over, most of which will be conjunctions ???and???, ???but???, ???or??? & prepositions and proclitics like ???to???, ??? in??? , ???from???, or ???of???. There are no doctrinal , historical or real factual difficulties remaining in the Peshitta text.

Please go to the web site for a full account with the Aramaic and Greek in their respective viewable fonts .

Burkhtha w'shlama,

Dave Bauscher

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